Araneidae  Clerck, 1757 / Cyclosa  Menge, 1866   6 species

Cyclosa oculata  (Walckenaer, 1802)

Description

Male palp with rectangularly bent distal apophysis, with very long tip. Median apophysis distally with 2 stout jags. Embolus long and robust. Epigyne with long scapus, first bent toward anterior then toward posterior again. Prosoma dark brown to black. Sternum sometimes with bright spots. Opisthosoma dark red-brown to black, dorsally rarely with light pattern, posteriorly with 3 dorsal protuberances, anteriorly with 2.

Body length male: 4.0 mm
Body length female: 5.5-6.8 mm
Additional information

amongst grass in sunny and dry meadows, only in warm places in Central Europe

Frequency: Rarely found

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2018): Europe, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Central Asia, China
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Azheganova N S (1968) Kratkii opredelitel' paukov (Aranei) lesnoi i lesostepnoi zony SSSR. Akademia Nauk SSSR: 1-149

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Groppali R, Guerci P, Pesarini C (1998) Appunti sui Ragni (Arachnida, Araneae) della costa orientale di Eivissa (Ibiza), con la descrizione di una nuova specie: Cyclosa groppalii Pesarini (Araneidae). Boll Soc Hist nat Balears 41: 65-74

Hänggi A, Stäubli A (2012) Nachträge zum „Katalog der schweizerischen Spinnen“: 4. Neunachweise von 2002 bis 2011. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 44: 59-76

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Helsdingen P J van, IJland S, Komnenov M (2018) Inventory of the spiders (Araneae) of the border region of northern Greece with Albania and FYR Macedonia. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 37: 5-23 pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Loksa I (1972) Pokok II-Araneae II. Fauna Hungariae 109: 3.1-3.112

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Wiehle H (1931) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VI. 27: Familie Araneidae. Tierwelt Deutschlands 23

World Spider Catalog (2018) World Spider Catalog, version 19.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (15.07.2018) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
17-03-2018 Distribution update Old value
31-12-2013 Image insert
09-04-2013 Distribution update Old value