Linyphiidae  Blackwall, 1859 / Ostearius  Hull, 1911   1 species

Ostearius melanopygius  (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1880)

Description

Tibial apophysis large, bipartite. Embolus massive. Epigyne with 2 sclerotised clasps. Prosoma brown, with black margin and radial stripes. Sternum yellow-brown, tinged with black, with dark margin. Chelicerae yellow-brown, suffused with black, robust. Male: with tooth-like tubercle. Legs yellow-brown, relatively long. Opisthosoma strikingly orange, red or yellow (unicoloured dark specimens rarely). Broad, black ring around spinnerets.

Body length male: 2.3-2.5 mm
Body length female: 1.9-2.4 mm
Additional information

Frequently in scree, compost and market gardens, not in the mountains. On compost heaps, aggregative spider webs reached 10 m in lengths and comprised several thousand spiders. In Europe, first record 1906 in England, since then further expansion to the east (Růžička 1995). This species is not native to Europe (alien species) but it is of South American origin. It had been introduced to Europe at least once and did establish.

Character states from linyphiid key
Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): South America. Introduced to Europe, Canary Is. to Egypt and Turkey, South Africa, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Zealand
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
mainly early year and autumn
Figures
Distribution List
Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Cyprus   (Bosmans et al., 2019c) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Egypt   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Faroe Islands   (Lissner et al., 2016b) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (Bosmans et al., 2013) ||| Hungary   (no references) ||| Iceland   (Agnarsson, 1996) ||| Ireland   (Cawley, 2001) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Luxembourg   (Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Malta   (Pfliegler et al., 2017) ||| Morocco   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| Norway   (Aakra & Hauge, 2003) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Sweden   (Kronestedt, 2001) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Aakra K, Hauge E (2003) Checklist of Norwegian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae), including Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 50: 109-129 pdf

Agnarsson I (1996) Íslenskar köngulær Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar 31: 1-175 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Cawley M (2001) Distribution records for uncommon spiders (Araneae) including five species new to Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 25: 135-143 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Dandria D, Falzon V, Henwood J (2005) The current knowledge of the spider fauna of the Maltese Islands with the addition of some new records (Arachnida: Araneae). The Central Mediterranean Naturalist 4: 121-129 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Jäger P (2002a) Aggregative Spinnennetze - weitere Funde in Deutschland und mögliche Erklärungen. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 23: 33-44 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Kronestedt T (2001) Checklist of Spiders (Araneae) in Sweden [Preliminary version February 2001] pdf

Lissner J, Jensen J-K, Hansen L J, Simonsen W, Kelduni R, Nissen K (2016b) An updated checklist of spiders (Araneae) of the Faroe Islands. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 63: 197-240 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British spiders. Vol. II. Ray Society, London, 449 pp. pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F, Merrett P (1974) British Spiders, Volume III. Ray Society, London, 315 pp. pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Millidge A F (1985) Some linyphiid spiders from South America (Araneae, Linyphiidae). American Museum Novitates 2836: 1-78 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Pfliegler W P (2014) Records of some rare and interesting spider (Araneae) species from anthropogenic habitats in Debrecen, Hungary. e-Acta Naturalia Pannonica 7: 143-156 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Ponomarev A V, Prokopenko E V, Shmatko, V Y (2017c) New and interesting records of spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) from the southeastern part of the Russian Plain. Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society in St. Petersburg 88: 103-117 pdf

Roberts M J (1987) The spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 2: Linyphiidae and checklist. Harley Books Colchester, England, 204 pp. pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion, Baarn, Netherlands, 397 pp. pdf

Rozwałka R, Stachowicz J (2010) First record of Ostearius melanopygius (Cambridge, 1879) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in the eastern part of Poland. Przegląd Zoologiczny 52-43: 159-161 pdf

Růžička V (1995) The spreading of Ostearius melanopygius (Araneae: Linyphiidae) through central Europe. European Journal of Entomology 92: 723-726 pdf

Thaler K (1978a) Über wenig bekannte Zwergspinnen aus den Alpen, V (Arachnida: Aranei, Erigonidae). Beiträge zur Entomologie 28: 183-200 pdf

Wiehle H (1960b) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der deutschen Spinnenfauna. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 88: 195-254 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
19-07-2020 Distribution update Detail
08-06-2020 Datasheet update Detail
14-05-2020 Distribution insert Detail
29-04-2019 Image insert
05-02-2019 Distribution update Detail
22-10-2018 Datasheet update Detail
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23-09-2015 Distribution update Detail
29-07-2014 Distribution update Detail
15-10-2013 Distribution update Detail