Eresidae  C. L. Koch, 1845 / Eresus  Walckenaer, 1805   18 species

Eresus kollari  Rossi, 1846

Description

Conductor distally short and blunt, distal furrow shallow. Vulva anteriorly broad, entrance ducts strongly lobed. Body jumping-spider-like, males contrastingly coloured. Prosoma black, female: black, head region mostly provided with yellow hairs. Male: black. Legs short and robust. Female: black, provided with bluish light grey hairs. Male: black or reddish, annulated with white, III and IV with red hairs. Opisthosoma female: appears velvety black due to shiny hairs. Male: dorsally shiny red with 2 pairs of large and one pair of small, black spots (often margined white), laterally and ventrally black.

Body length male: 8-11 mm
Body length female: 9-16 mm
Additional information

in colonies in burrows of up to 10 cm depth (1 cm diameter), covered by small shield- or funnel-like web. Female carries lens-shaped cocoon (8-10 mm diameter, approximately 65-100 eggs) to sunny places during the day. Hatching juveniles stay in the female's burrow and feed on her after her death.

This species can bite humans (Nentwig et al., 2013). A bite into a finger caused pain, spreading to the axilla, with fever-like symptoms and an increased heart rate. After one hour the patient had partially recovered and after 2 hours the symptoms had alleviated, but a strong headache lasted for one day and the finger remained sensitive for several days.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Greece: the locality of Řezáč et al. (2008a) is not in Greece but rather in Albania (Chatzaki, unpubl.)
Global distribution (WSC 2023): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, China, Korea, Russia (to Far East)?, Central Asia?
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
females adult after 3 years
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (Deltshev et al., 2011b) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Armenia   (Zarikian, 2022a) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2022) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2022) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece  Removed (Řezáč et al., 2008a; Chatzaki, unpupl.) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Libya   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Lithuania   (Biteniekytė & Rėlys, 2012) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Morocco   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2022) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2022) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) |||
References

Azheganova N S (1968) Kratkii opredelitel' paukov (Aranei) lesnoi i lesostepnoi zony SSSR. Akademia Nauk SSSR, 149pp. pdf

Biteniekytė M, Rėlys V (2012) The checklist of Lithuanian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Biologija 57: 148-158 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Brændegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224 pdf

Chatzaki M (unpupl.) .

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2022) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2022 [last updated 24 August 2022], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144 pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British spiders. Vol. I. Ray Society, London, 310 pp. pdf

Loksa I (1969) Pokok I-Araneae I. Fauna Hungariae 97: 1-133 pdf

Miller J A, Griswold C E, Scharff N, Řezáč M, Szűts T, Marhabaie M (2012) The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae). ZooKeys 195: 1-144 pdf

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110 pdf

Otto S (2022) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 02.2022. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Ratschker U M, Bellmann H (1995) Zur Bestimmung der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattung Eresus Walckenaer 1805 (Arachnida: Araneae: Eresidae). Beiträge zur Araneologie 4: 217-218 pdf

Řezáč M, Pekár S, Johannesen J (2008a) Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of Central European Eresus species (Araneae: Eresidae). Zoologica Scripta 37: 263-287 pdf

Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion, Baarn, Netherlands, 397 pp. pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 42: 1-150 pdf

WSC (2022) World Spider Catalog. Version 23.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (21.07.2022) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Zamani A, Altin Ç, Szűts T (2020b) A black sheep in Eresus (Araneae: Eresidae): taxonomic notes on the ladybird spiders of Iran and Turkey, with a new species. Zootaxa 4851: 559-572 pdf

Zarikian N A (2022a) New records of Araneae from Armenia. Indian Journal of Entomology 84: 757-760 pdf

Zhang F, Peng J Y, Zhang B S (2022a) Spiders of Mt. Xiaowutai. Science Press, Beijing, 387 pp. pdf

Updates
05-01-2023 Distribution insert Detail
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