Eresidae  C. L. Koch, 1845 / Eresus  Walckenaer, 1805   18 species

Eresus kollari  Rossi, 1846

Description

Conductor distally short and blunt, distal furrow shallow. Vulva anteriorly broad, entrance ducts strongly lobed. Body jumping-spider-like, males contrastingly coloured. Prosoma black, female: black, head region mostly provided with yellow hairs. Male: black. Legs short and robust. Female: black, provided with bluish light grey hairs. Male: black or reddish, annulated with white, III and IV with red hairs. Opisthosoma female: appears velvety black due to shiny hairs. Male: dorsally shiny red with 2 pairs of large and one pair of small, black spots (often margined white), laterally and ventrally black.

Body length male: 8-11 mm
Body length female: 9-16 mm
Additional information

in colonies in burrows of up to 10 cm depth (1 cm diameter), covered by small shield- or funnel-like web. Female carries lens-shaped cocoon (8-10 mm diameter, approximately 65-100 eggs) to sunny places during the day. Hatching juveniles stay in the female's burrow and feed on her after her death.

This species can bite humans. A bite into a finger caused pain, spreading to the axilla, with fever-like symptoms and an increased heart rate. After one hour the patient had partially recovered and after 2 hours the symptoms had alleviated, but a strong headache lasted for one day and the finger remained sensitive for several days.

Frequency: Rare

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Iran, Central Asia
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
females adult after 3 years
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (no references) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2020) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Libya   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Morocco   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) |||
References

Azheganova N S (1968) Kratkii opredelitel' paukov (Aranei) lesnoi i lesostepnoi zony SSSR. Akademia Nauk SSSR, 149pp. pdf

Biteniekyte M, Relys V (2012) The checklist of Lithuanian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Biologija 57: 148-158 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Brændegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British spiders. Vol. I. Ray Society, London, 310 pp. pdf

Loksa I (1969) Pokok I-Araneae I. Fauna Hungariae 97: 1-133 pdf

Miller J A, Griswold C E, Scharff N, Řezáč M, Szűts T, Marhabaie M (2012) The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae). ZooKeys 195: 1-144 pdf

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110 pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Ratschker U M, Bellmann H (1995) Zur Bestimmung der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattung Eresus Walckenaer 1805 (Arachnida: Araneae: Eresidae). Beiträge zur Araneologie 4: 217-218 pdf

Řezáč M, Pekár S, Johannesen J (2008a) Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of Central European Eresus species (Araneae: Eresidae). Zoologica Scripta 37: 263-287 pdf

Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion, Baarn, Netherlands, 397 pp. pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 42: 1-150 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Zamani A, Altin Ç, Szűts T (2020b) A black sheep in Eresus (Araneae: Eresidae): taxonomic notes on the ladybird spiders of Iran and Turkey, with a new species. Zootaxa 4851: 559-572 pdf

Updates
11-09-2020 Image insert
14-10-2015 Image insert
01-12-2013 Distribution update Detail
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Detail
16-10-2013 Distribution update Detail
09-04-2013 Distribution update Detail