Conductor distally short and blunt, distal furrow shallow. Vulva anteriorly broad, entrance ducts strongly lobed. Body jumping-spider-like, males contrastingly coloured. Prosoma black, female: black, head region mostly provided with yellow hairs. Male: black. Legs short and robust. Female: black, provided with bluish light grey hairs. Male: black or reddish, annulated with white, III and IV with red hairs. Opisthosoma female: appears velvety black due to shiny hairs. Male: dorsally shiny red with 2 pairs of large and one pair of small, black spots (often margined white), laterally and ventrally black.Body length male: 8-11 mm
in colonies in burrows of up to 10 cm depth (1 cm diameter), covered by small shield- or funnel-like web. Female carries lens-shaped cocoon (8-10 mm diameter, approximately 65-100 eggs) to sunny places during the day. Hatching juveniles stay in the female's burrow and feed on her after her death.
This species can bite humans (Nentwig et al., 2013). A bite into a finger caused pain, spreading to the axilla, with fever-like symptoms and an increased heart rate. After one hour the patient had partially recovered and after 2 hours the symptoms had alleviated, but a strong headache lasted for one day and the finger remained sensitive for several days.
Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)
Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019
Chatzaki M (unpupl.) .
Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2022) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2022 [last updated 24 August 2022], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info
Otto S (2022) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 02.2022. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.
Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152
Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 42: 1-150
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