Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Theridion  Walckenaer, 1805   53 species

Theridion varians  Hahn, 1833

Description

Bulbus with large, projecting bipartite apophysis. Epigyne with posteriorly dark margined epigynal groove, anteriorly with small bulge. Prosoma light yellow, with dark margin and broad, brown median stripe. Sternum light yellow, with dark margin, sometimes completely brown. Chelicerae yellowish-grey. Legs yellowish, annulated with grey. Opisthosoma with bright, laterally bulged, dark margined median band, otherwise very variable (yellowish, grey, pink and also black).

Body length male: 2.5-3.5 mm
Body length female: 2.5-4 mm
Additional information

On perennials and bushes, also on buildings, in the mountains up to and above 1000 m. Egg sac whitish, with 20 to 60 eggs.

Frequency: Very frequent, widely distributed

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): North America, Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Siberia), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Females with a peak in June and July, egg sac in July.
Figures
References

Azheganova N S (1968) Kratkii opredelitel' paukov (Aranei) lesnoi i lesostepnoi zony SSSR. Akademia Nauk SSSR: 1-149

Barrientos J A, Febrer B (2017) Arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España). Nuevos datos. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 31: 8-24 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Helsdingen P J van (2013) A quick scan of the spider fauna of the European part of Turkey. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 33: 29-38

Jäger P (1995a) Faunistische Untersuchungen an Spinnen (Araneae) der Wahner Heide (Nordrhein-Westfalen) mit Anmerkungen zur Biologie und Taxonomie. Diplomarbeit, Zoologisches Institut, Universität zu Köln

Jäger P, Ono H (2000) The Sparassidae of Japan. I. New species of Olios, Heteropoda and Sinopoda with remarks on known species (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Arachnologica 49: 41-60 pdf

Knoflach B (1998) Mating in Theridion varians Hahn and related species (Araneae: Theridiidae). Journal of Natural History 32: 545-604 pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2019) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 10.2019. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. [Old pdf-version: Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at Pantini_&_Isaia_- _Checklist_of_the_Italian_spiders._June_2018.] Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Tierwelt Deutschlands 33

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.09.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Wunderlich J (1977a) Zur Synonymie südeuropäischer Spinnen (Arachnida: Araneida: Theridiidae, Linyphiidae, Gnaphosidae). Senckenberg biol 57: 289-293

Updates
30-01-2019 Image insert
30-12-2017 Distribution update Old value
21-10-2015 Distribution update Old value
22-01-2015 Image insert
24-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
04-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
01-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
15-10-2013 Distribution update Old value
15-04-2013 Distribution update Old value