Linyphiidae  Blackwall, 1859 / Leptorhoptrum  Kulczynski, 1894   1 species

Leptorhoptrum robustum  (Westring, 1851)

Description

Cymbium shorter than palpal tibia. Embolus strongly sclerotised. Paracymbium very simple. Epigyne with broad epigynal plate, posterior margin ± straight. Receptacula seminis small and spheroidal, visible through epigyne. Prosoma brown, with dark margin and radial stripes. Sternum brown, tinged with black. Chelicerae brown, robust. Legs yellow-brown, ± short, robust. Opisthosoma grey to almost black.

Body length male: 3-4.2 mm
Body length female: 3-4.8 mm
Additional information

In moss and leaves of damp, cool localities from lowland up to alpine zone.

It has been described that this small species repeatedly bite sewage plant workers (Duffey & Green 1975). It is highly unlikely that a 3 mm linyphiid can bite humans, but other effects such as allergic reactions cannot be excluded. 

Character states from linyphiid key
Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): North America, Europe, Russia (Europe to Far East), Japan, Iran?
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Maximum VI-IX
Figures
Distribution List
Austria   (no references) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Faroe Islands   (Lissner et al., 2016b) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Iceland   (Agnarsson, 1996) ||| Ireland   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Luxembourg   (Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| Northern Ireland   (no references) ||| Norway   (Aakra & Hauge, 2003) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Northern   (no references) ||| Russia, Western   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Sweden   (Kronestedt, 2001) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Ukraine   (no references) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Aakra K, Hauge E (2003) Checklist of Norwegian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae), including Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 50: 109-129 pdf

Agnarsson I (1996) Íslenskar köngulær Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar 31: 1-175 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Duffey E, Green M B (1975) A linyphiid spider biting workers on a sewage-treatment plant. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 3: 130-131 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Kronestedt T (2001) Checklist of Spiders (Araneae) in Sweden [Preliminary version February 2001] pdf

Lissner J, Jensen J-K, Hansen L J, Simonsen W, Kelduni R, Nissen K (2016b) An updated checklist of spiders (Araneae) of the Faroe Islands. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 63: 197-240 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British spiders. Vol. II. Ray Society, London, 449 pp. pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Roberts M J (1987) The spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 2: Linyphiidae and checklist. Harley Books Colchester, England, 204 pp. pdf

Wiehle H (1956) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, X. 28: Familie Linyphiidae-Baldachinspinnen. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 44: 1-337 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
12-05-2020 Distribution insert Detail
25-02-2014 Image insert
26-01-2014 Image insert
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Detail