Uloboridae  Thorell, 1869 / Hyptiotes  Walckenaer, 1837   4 species

Hyptiotes paradoxus  (C. L. Koch, 1834)

Description

Bulbus as large as prosoma. Prosoma brown-black, with bright hairs. Female: broad and high. Sternum black. Legs orange-brown, to brown or black, legs I and II especially robust. Metatarsus IV with calamistrum consisting of 30-34 bristles. Opisthosoma orange-brown to red-brown and black, sides sometimes spotted bright (colour very variable). Female: short and oval, with hump in the middle. Male: more cylindrical.

Body length male: 3.5-4 mm
Body length female: 5-6 mm
Additional information

Seems to occur only in spruce forests especially in low mountain ranges. Web consisting of 3 sectors of an orb web connected to a signal thread, the spider itself acts as a linkage, on lower twigs of trees (1-2 m height), cocoon (8-22 eggs) on droughty twigs or bark

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Andorra   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2020) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Cyprus   (Bosmans et al., 2019c) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Estonia   (no references) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (no references) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Ireland   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Luxembourg   (Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| Norway   (Aakra & Hauge, 2003) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Kaliningrad Region   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Sweden   (Kronestedt, 2001) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (no references) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Aakra K, Hauge E (2003) Checklist of Norwegian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae), including Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 50: 109-129 pdf

Biteniekyte M, Relys V (2012) The checklist of Lithuanian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Biologija 57: 148-158 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Brændegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Drensky P (1939) Die Spinnenfauna Bulgariens. III. Unterordnung Arachnomorphae, II Gruppe Trionychia; Familien: Urocteidae, Uloboridae, Sicaridae, Pholcidae, Eresidae. Izvestiya na Tsarskite Prirodonauchni Instituti v Sofia 12: 231-252 pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Kronestedt T (2001) Checklist of Spiders (Araneae) in Sweden [Preliminary version February 2001] pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British spiders. Vol. I. Ray Society, London, 310 pp. pdf

Loksa I (1969) Pokok I-Araneae I. Fauna Hungariae 97: 1-133 pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 42: 1-150 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
06-05-2020 Distribution update Detail
16-05-2018 Distribution update Detail
30-09-2015 Distribution update Detail
15-04-2013 Distribution update Detail