Uloboridae  Thorell, 1869 / Hyptiotes  Walckenaer, 1837   4 species

Hyptiotes paradoxus  (C. L. Koch, 1834)

Description

Bulbus as large as prosoma. Prosoma brown-black, with bright hairs. Female: broad and high. Sternum black. Legs orange-brown, to brown or black, legs I and II especially robust. Metatarsus IV with calamistrum consisting of 30-34 bristles. Opisthosoma orange-brown to red-brown and black, sides sometimes spotted bright (colour very variable). Female: short and oval, with hump in the middle. Male: more cylindrical.

Body length male: 3.5-4 mm
Body length female: 5-6 mm
Additional information

Seems to occur only in spruce forests especially in low mountain ranges. Web consisting of 3 sectors of an orb web connected to a signal thread, the spider itself acts as a linkage, on lower twigs of trees (1-2 m height), cocoon (8-22 eggs) on droughty twigs or bark

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Biteniekyte M, Relys V (2012) The checklist of Lithuanian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Biologija 57: 148-158

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Braendegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Drensky P (1939) Die Spinnenfauna Bulgariens. III. Unterordnung Arachnomorphae, II Gruppe Trionychia; Familien: Urocteidae, Uloboridae, Sicaridae, Pholcidae, Eresidae. Mitt Nat Inst Sofia 12: 231-252

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Loksa I (1969) Pokok I-Araneae I. Fauna Hungariae 97: 2.1-2.133

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Tierwelt Deutschlands 42

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.09.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
16-05-2018 Distribution update Old value
30-09-2015 Distribution update Old value
15-04-2013 Distribution update Old value