Gnaphosidae  Pocock, 1898 / Callilepis  Westring, 1874   4 species

Callilepis nocturna  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Description

Epigyne with continuous anterior margin. Prosoma red-brown or dark brown to black-brown. Opisthosoma grey-brown with 5 bright spots.

Body length male: 2.8-4.7 mm
Body length female: 3.8-5.9 mm
Additional information

In dry and sunny, often vegetation free localities, up to 2200 m in the mountains. Specialized ant predator, they jump on prey and paralyze it by a bite in the base of the antenna, active during the day with maximum of activity a.m., walking behaviour similar to ants. Sac-like retreats under stones, wood etc.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, China, Japan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (Deltshev et al., 2011b) ||| Andorra   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Armenia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2020) ||| Belarus   (Ivanov, 2013) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Estonia   (no references) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Luxembourg   (Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Norway   (Aakra & Hauge, 2003) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003a) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Northern   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Russia, Western   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Sweden   (Kronestedt, 2001) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Aakra K, Hauge E (2003) Checklist of Norwegian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae), including Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 50: 109-129 pdf

Biteniekyte M, Relys V (2012) The checklist of Lithuanian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Biologija 57: 148-158 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144 pdf

Homann H (unpubl.)

Ivanov V V (2013) The checklist of Belarusian spiders (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoology and Ecology 4: 293-311 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Kronestedt T (2001) Checklist of Spiders (Araneae) in Sweden [Preliminary version February 2001] pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F, Merrett P (1974) British Spiders, Volume III. Ray Society, London, 315 pp. pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Miller F (1947) Pavoucí zvírena hadcových stepí u Mohelna. Archiv Svazu na Výzkum a Ochranu Přírody i Krajiny v Zemi Moravskoslezské 7: 1-107 pdf

Noordam A P (1992) Gnaphosidae (Araneae) of the Netherlands, drawings, some notes, and some thoughts about ant-mimicry. viii & 16 pp. Published by the author. pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Platnick N I (1975) A revision of the Holarctic spider genus Callilepis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae). American Museum Novitates 2573: 1-32 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Tuneva T K, Esyunin S L (2003a) A review of the Gnaphosidae fauna of the Urals (Aranei), 3. New species and new records, chiefly from the south Urals. Arthropoda Selecta 11: 223-234 pdf

Wiehle H (1967) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der deutschen Spinnenfauna V. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48: 1-36 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
31-08-2020 Image insert
26-08-2020 Distribution update Detail
14-05-2020 Distribution insert Detail
25-03-2020 Image insert
03-12-2019 Image insert
08-03-2016 Image insert
30-09-2015 Distribution update Detail
28-04-2014 Distribution update Detail
10-12-2013 Distribution update Detail