Gnaphosidae  Pocock, 1898 / Callilepis  Westring, 1874   4 species

Callilepis nocturna  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Description

Epigyne with continuous anterior margin. Prosoma red-brown or dark brown to black-brown. Opisthosoma grey-brown with 5 bright spots.

Body length male: 2.8-4.7 mm
Body length female: 3.8-5.9 mm
Additional information

In dry and sunny, often vegetation free localities, up to 2200 m in the mountains. Specialized ant predator, they jump on prey and paralyze it by a bite in the base of the antenna, active during the day with maximum of activity a.m., walking behaviour similar to ants. Sac-like retreats under stones, wood etc.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, China, Japan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   ( Deltshev et al., 2011b; ) ||| Andorra   ( no references ) ||| Armenia   ( Otto, 2020; ) ||| Austria   ( no references ) ||| Azerbaijan   ( Otto, 2020; ) ||| Belarus   ( no references ) ||| Belgium   ( no references ) ||| Bulgaria   ( Blagoev et al., 2018; ) ||| Croatia   ( no references ) ||| Czechia   ( no references ) ||| Denmark   ( no references ) ||| Estonia   ( no references ) ||| Finland   ( Koponen et al., 2016; ) ||| France   ( no references ) ||| France / Corsica   ( no references ) ||| Germany   ( no references ) ||| Greece   ( no references ) ||| Hungary   ( no references ) ||| Italy   ( Pantini & Isaia, 2019; ) ||| Italy / Sicily   ( Pantini & Isaia, 2019; ) ||| Latvia   ( Cera, 2018; ) ||| Lithuania   ( no references ) ||| Montenegro   ( no references ) ||| Netherlands   ( no references ) ||| North Macedonia   ( no references ) ||| Norway   ( no references ) ||| Poland   ( no references ) ||| Portugal   ( no references ) ||| Romania   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Central   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Eastern   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Northern   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Southern   ( Otto, 2020; ) ||| Russia, Western   ( no references ) ||| Serbia   ( no references ) ||| Slovakia   ( no references ) ||| Spain   ( no references ) ||| Sweden   ( no references ) ||| Switzerland   ( no references ) ||| Ukraine   ( Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019; ) ||| United Kingdom   ( no references ) |||
References

Biteniekyte M, Relys V (2012) The checklist of Lithuanian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Biologija 57: 148-158

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Homann H (unpubl.)

Ivanov V V (2013) The checklist of Belarusian spiders (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoology and Ecology 4: 293-311 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm

Locket G H, Millidge A F, Merrett P (1974) British Spiders 3. Ray Soc London

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Miller F (1947) Pavoucí zvírena hadcových stepí u Mohelna. Arch Sv Vyzk ochr prirod kraj zem Morav 7: 1-107

Noordam A P (1992) Gnaphosidae (Araneae) of the Netherlands, drawings, some notes, and some thoughts about ant-mimicry. Published by the author.

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Platnick N I (1975) A revision of the Holarctic spider genus Callilepis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae). American Museum Novitates 2573: 1-32

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Wiehle H (1967) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der deutschen Spinnenfauna V. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48: 1-36

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
25-03-2020 Image insert
03-12-2019 Image insert
08-03-2016 Image insert
30-09-2015 Distribution update Detail
28-04-2014 Distribution update Detail
10-12-2013 Distribution update Detail