Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Theridion  Walckenaer, 1805   53 species

Theridion mystaceum  L. Koch, 1870

Description
Male

Conductor laterally with small projecting tip. Palp: tibia 0.5 times as long as bulb. Prosoma 1.1 mm long. Characters as in female, but with epigastric area markedly bulgung.

Body length male: 2-3 mm
Female

Epigyne with a circular opening, copulatory openings well visible, more apart from each other than in T. betteni. Vulva with entrance ducts in numerous narrow loops. Prosoma yellowish-brown, tinged with black, eye region darker. Prosoma 1-1.2 mm long. Colouration and pattern as in T. melanurum. Sternum and chelicerae brown, sometimes almost black. Legs grey-yellow, annulated with dark brown. Opisthosoma very variable, mostly spotted brown, ventrally dark brown with white spot behind epigastric furrow.

Body length female: 2-3 mm
Additional information

Mainly in forests: coniferous, deciduous or mixed forests, also in heathlands, marshes, cereal fields, buildings, on walls of houses, bushes in meadows, hedges, on tree trunks and evergreen bushes.

Frequency: Widely distributed, not rare

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Russia (Europe to South Siberia), China
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Females almost all the year, with a peak in May and June, males with a peak in May.
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   ( Deltshev et al., 2011b; ) ||| Algeria   ( Bosmans, unpubl.; ) ||| Austria   ( no references ) ||| Belarus   ( no references ) ||| Belgium   ( no references ) ||| Bulgaria   ( Blagoev et al., 2018; ) ||| Croatia   ( no references ) ||| Czechia   ( no references ) ||| Denmark   ( no references ) ||| Estonia   ( no references ) ||| Finland   ( Koponen et al., 2016; ) ||| France   ( no references ) ||| France / Corsica   ( no references ) ||| Germany   ( no references ) ||| Greece   ( no references ) ||| Hungary   ( no references ) ||| Ireland   ( no references ) ||| Italy   ( Pantini & Isaia, 2019; ) ||| Italy / Sardinia   ( Pantini & Isaia, 2019; ) ||| Italy / Sicily   ( Pantini & Isaia, 2019; ) ||| Lithuania   ( no references ) ||| Luxembourg   ( Hermann, 1998; ) ||| Malta   ( Pfliegler et al., 2017; ) ||| Moldova   ( no references ) ||| Montenegro   ( no references ) ||| Morocco   ( Bosmans, unpubl.; ) ||| Netherlands   ( no references ) ||| North Macedonia   ( no references ) ||| Northern Ireland   ( no references ) ||| Norway   ( no references ) ||| Poland   ( no references ) ||| Portugal   ( no references ) ||| Romania   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Central   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Eastern   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Southern   ( Otto, 2020; ) ||| Russia, Western   ( no references ) ||| Serbia   ( no references ) ||| Slovakia   ( no references ) ||| Slovenia   ( Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015; ) ||| Spain   ( no references ) ||| Sweden   ( no references ) ||| Switzerland   ( no references ) ||| Turkey (Asia)   ( Danışman et al., 2019; ) ||| Turkey (Europe)   ( Danışman et al., 2019; ) ||| Ukraine   ( Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019; ) ||| United Kingdom   ( no references ) |||
References

Aakra K (2000a) New records of spiders (Araneae) from Norway with notes on epigynal characters of Philodromus fuscomarginatus (De Geer) (Philodromidae) and Araneus sturmi (Hahn) (Araneidae). Norwegian Journal of Entomology 47: 77-88

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Fjellberg A (unpubl.)

Grbac I, Katušić L, Lukić M (2019) Catalogue of spiders (Araneae) deposited in the Croatian Natural History Museum. Natura Croatica 28: 185-269 pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Helsdingen P J van, IJland S, Komnenov M (2018) Inventory of the spiders (Araneae) of the border region of northern Greece with Albania and FYR Macedonia. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 37: 5-23 pdf

Hermann E (1998) Die Spinnen (Araneae) ausgewählter Halbtrockenrasen im Osten Luxemburgs. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes Luxembourgeois 99: 189-199 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Lissner J (2016c) A small study of the Corsican spider and pseudoscorpion fauna (Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones). Nieuwsbrief SPINED 36: 5-15

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Locket G H, Millidge A F, Merrett P (1974) British Spiders 3. Ray Soc London

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Vanuytven H (2014) Theridion asopi n. sp., a new member of the Theridion melanurum group (Araneae: Theridiidae) in Europe. Arachnology 16: 127-134

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
18-03-2020 Distribution insert Detail
06-01-2020 Image insert
28-06-2019 Distribution update Detail
13-03-2019 Image insert
05-02-2019 Distribution update Detail
16-05-2018 Distribution update Detail
28-12-2016 Datasheet update Detail
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21-10-2015 Distribution update Detail
05-08-2014 Image insert
04-12-2013 Distribution update Detail