Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Theridion  Walckenaer, 1805   54 species

Theridion mystaceum  L. Koch, 1870

Description
Male

Conductor laterally with small projecting tip. Palp: tibia 0.5 times as long as bulb. Prosoma 1.1 mm long. Characters as in female, but with epigastric area markedly bulgung.

Body length male: 2-3 mm
Female

Epigyne with a circular opening, copulatory openings well visible, more apart from each other than in T. betteni. Vulva with entrance ducts in numerous narrow loops. Prosoma yellowish-brown, tinged with black, eye region darker. Prosoma 1-1.2 mm long. Colouration and pattern as in T. melanurum. Sternum and chelicerae brown, sometimes almost black. Legs grey-yellow, annulated with dark brown. Opisthosoma very variable, mostly spotted brown, ventrally dark brown with white spot behind epigastric furrow.

Body length female: 2-3 mm
Additional information

Mainly in forests: coniferous, deciduous or mixed forests, also in heathlands, marshes, cereal fields, buildings, on walls of houses, bushes in meadows, hedges, on tree trunks and evergreen bushes.

Frequency: Widely distributed, not rare

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Russia (Europe to South Siberia), China
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Females almost all the year, with a peak in May and June, males with a peak in May.
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (Deltshev et al., 2011b) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Belarus   (Ivanov, 2013) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Estonia   (no references) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Hungary   (no references) ||| Ireland   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Luxembourg   (Hermann, 1998; Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Malta   (Pfliegler et al., 2017) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Morocco   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Northern Ireland   (no references) ||| Norway   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Russia, Western   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Barrientos & Febrer, 2020) ||| Sweden   (no references) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Aakra K (2000a) New records of spiders (Araneae) from Norway with notes on epigynal characters of Philodromus fuscomarginatus (De Geer) (Philodromidae) and Araneus sturmi (Hahn) (Araneidae). Norwegian Journal of Entomology 47: 77-88 pdf

Barrientos J A, Febrer J B (2020) Arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España). 3: nuevos datos. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 36: 69-78 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae).
[N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144 pdf

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Domènech M, Crespo L C, Enguídanos A, Arnedo M A (2020) Mitochondrial discordance in closely related Theridion spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae), with description of a new species of the T. melanurum group. Zoosystematics and Evolution 96: 159-173 pdf

Fjellberg A (unpubl.)

Grbac I, Katušić L, Lukić M (2019) Catalogue of spiders (Araneae) deposited in the Croatian Natural History Museum. Natura Croatica 28: 185-269 pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Helsdingen P J van, IJland S, Komnenov M (2018) Inventory of the spiders (Araneae) of the border region of northern Greece with Albania and FYR Macedonia. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 37: 5-23 pdf

Hermann E (1998) Die Spinnen (Araneae) ausgewählter Halbtrockenrasen im Osten Luxemburgs. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes Luxembourgeois 99: 189-199 pdf

Ivanov V V (2013) The checklist of Belarusian spiders (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoology and Ecology 4: 293-311 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Lissner J (2016c) A small study of the Corsican spider and pseudoscorpion fauna (Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones). Nieuwsbrief SPINED 36: 5-15 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British spiders. Vol. II. Ray Society, London, 449 pp. pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F, Merrett P (1974) British Spiders, Volume III. Ray Society, London, 315 pp. pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Vanuytven H (2014) Theridion asopi n. sp., a new member of the Theridion melanurum group (Araneae: Theridiidae) in Europe. Arachnology 16: 127-134 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

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