Gnaphosidae  Pocock, 1898 / Gnaphosa  Latreille, 1804   66 species

Gnaphosa muscorum  (L. Koch, 1866)

Description

Bulbus with robust, bent apophysis (can break off). Embolus long and whip-like. Epigyne with scapus wider than long. Prosoma bright red-brown to black-brown, eye region darker. Legs darker. Opisthosoma bright red-brown to black-brown.

Body length male: 7.3-9.5 mm
Body length female: 7.5-15 mm
Additional information

In open and dry coniferous forests and heathland, under moss, bark or stones during the day, up to 2500 m. Cocoon white, circular, diameter 14 mm

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Occurrence in the Caucasus needs to be verified (Otto 2017)
Global distribution (WSC 2020): North America, Europe, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, China, Korea
Figures
Distribution List
Austria   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Norway   (Aakra & Hauge, 2003) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Northern   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Sweden   (Kronestedt, 2001) ||| Switzerland   (no references) |||
References

Aakra K, Hauge E (2003) Checklist of Norwegian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae), including Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 50: 109-129 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Kielhorn K-H (2016) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Webspinnen und Weberknechte in Berlin und Brandenburg. Märkische Entomologische Nachrichten 17(2): 261-286 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kronestedt T (2001) Checklist of Spiders (Araneae) in Sweden [Preliminary version February 2001] pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Ovtsharenko V I, Platnick N I, Song D X (1992) A review of the North Asian ground spiders of the genus Gnaphosa (Araneae, Gnaphosidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 212: 1-88 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Tullgren A (1946) Svensk spindelfauna. 3. Egentiliga spinddlar. Araneae Fam 5-7. Clubionidae, Zoridae och Gnaphosidae. Stockholm (Entomol Fören.): 141 pp. pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
22-07-2019 Distribution update Detail
13-03-2018 Image insert