Gnaphosidae  Pocock, 1898 / Gnaphosa  Latreille, 1804   66 species

Gnaphosa muscorum  (L. Koch, 1866)

Description

Bulbus with robust, bent apophysis (can break off). Embolus long and whip-like. Epigyne with scapus wider than long. Prosoma bright red-brown to black-brown, eye region darker. Legs darker. Opisthosoma bright red-brown to black-brown.

Body length male: 7.3-9.5 mm
Body length female: 7.5-15 mm
Additional information

In open and dry coniferous forests and heathland, under moss, bark or stones during the day, up to 2500 m. Cocoon white, circular, diameter 14 mm

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Occurrence in the Caucasus needs to be verified (Otto 2015)
Global distribution (WSC 2019): North America, Europe, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, China, Korea
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kielhorn K-H (2016) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Webspinnen und Weberknechte in Berlin und Brandenburg. Märkische Entomologische Nachrichten 17(2): 261-286 pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Ovtsharenko V I, Platnick N I, Song D X (1992) A review of the North Asian ground spiders of the genus Gnaphosa (Araneae, Gnaphosidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 212: 1-88

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Tullgren A (1946) Svensk spindelfauna. 3. Egentiliga spinddlar. Araneae Fam 5-7. Clubionidae, Zoridae och Gnaphosidae. pl. I - XXI Stockholm (Entomol Fören): 1-141

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.01.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
13-03-2018 Image insert