Gnaphosidae  Pocock, 1898 / Scotophaeus  Simon, 1893   18 species

Scotophaeus blackwalli  (Thorell, 1871)

Description

Tibial apophysis smaller than tibia. Embolus short and straight. Epigynal groove with lateral bulge. Prosoma light brown to red-brown. Opisthosoma light to red-brown.

Body length male: 4.7-9.3 mm
Body length female: 7-11.7 mm
Additional information

Under bark and in tree stumps, also in buildings

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Caucasus, Iran. Introduced to North America, Peru, Hawaii
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   ( no references ) ||| Austria   ( no references ) ||| Belgium   ( no references ) ||| Bulgaria   ( Blagoev et al., 2018; ) ||| Croatia   ( no references ) ||| Denmark   ( no references ) ||| France   ( no references ) ||| France / Corsica   ( no references ) ||| Georgia   ( Otto, 2020; ) ||| Germany   ( no references ) ||| Greece   ( no references ) ||| Hungary   ( no references ) ||| Ireland   ( no references ) ||| Italy   ( Pantini & Isaia, 2019; ) ||| Italy / Sardinia   ( Pantini & Isaia, 2019; ) ||| Italy / Sicily   ( Pantini & Isaia, 2019; ) ||| Kosovo   ( no references ) ||| Luxembourg   ( Christian, 2015; Kreuels et al., 2019; ) ||| Malta   ( Pfliegler et al., 2017; ) ||| Montenegro   ( no references ) ||| Netherlands   ( no references ) ||| North Macedonia   ( no references ) ||| Norway   ( no references ) ||| Poland   ( no references ) ||| Portugal   ( no references ) ||| Romania   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Northern   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Southern   ( Otto, 2020; ) ||| Serbia   ( no references ) ||| Slovakia   ( no references ) ||| Spain   ( no references ) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   ( no references ) ||| Sweden   ( no references ) ||| Switzerland   ( no references ) ||| Tunisia   ( Bosmans, unpubl.; ) ||| Turkey (Europe)   ( no references ) ||| Ukraine   ( no references ) ||| United Kingdom   ( no references ) |||
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Brændegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224 pdf

Christian S (2015) Micaria subopaca Westring, 1861, Scotophaeus blackwalli (Thorell, 1871) and S. scutulatus (L.Koch, 1866): three species of gnaphosids new to Luxembourg (Arachnida, Gnaophosidae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 117: 87-90 pdf

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Platnick N I, Shadab M U (1977) A revision of the spider genera Herpyllus and Scotophaeus (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) in North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 159: 1-44 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Tullgren A (1946) Svensk spindelfauna. 3. Egentiliga spinddlar. Araneae Fam 5-7. Clubionidae, Zoridae och Gnaphosidae. Stockholm (Entomol Fören): 141 pp. pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
20-05-2020 Distribution update Detail
15-10-2019 Distribution update Detail
09-08-2018 Image insert
22-05-2018 Image insert
16-05-2018 Distribution update Detail
21-10-2015 Distribution update Detail
09-04-2013 Distribution update Detail