Cheiracanthiidae  Wagner, 1887 / Cheiracanthium  C. L. Koch, 1839   35 species

Cheiracanthium mildei  L. Koch, 1864

Description

Male palp with 2 equally long tibial apophyses. Epigyne without groove. Prosoma length female: 2.9-4.5 mm, prosoma length male: 3.0-3.8 mm.

Body length male: 5.8-8.5 mm
Body length female: 6-10.7 mm
Additional information

On shrubs.

This species can bite humans. This provokes pain, typically lasting for less than 2 hours, it may lead to local redness, swelling and itchiness. Systemic effects were observed in 15% (headache, vomiting). Complete recovery occurred fast. There are no necrotic skin reactions. If needed, a symptomatic medical treatment is recommended.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Middle East, Caucasus, Russia (Europe) to Central Asia. Introduced to North America, Argentina
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (Deltshev et al., 2011b) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2020) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Cyprus   (Bosmans et al., 2019c) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Egypt   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (Bosmans et al., 2013) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Malta   (Pfliegler et al., 2017) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) |||
References

Barrientos J A, Urones M C (1985) La colección de araneidos del Departamento de Zoología de la Universidad de Salamanca, V: arañas clubionoideas y tomisoideas. Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 9: 349-366 pdf

Bayer S (2014) Miscellaneous notes on European and African Cheiracanthium species (Araneae: Miturgidae). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 47: 19-34 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144 pdf

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kovács G, Szinetár C (2014) Adatok a sárga dajkapók (Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch, 1864) biológiájához (Araneae: Eutichuridae) [Data on the biology of the yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch, 1864) (Araneae, Eutichuridae)]. A Nyme Savaria Egyetemi Központ Tudományos Közleményei XX. Természettudományok 15: 115-134 pdf

Lecigne S (2018b) Récits de chasses aranéologiques récentes dans plusieurs départements de France. Redécouverte de Philodromus buchari Kubcová, 2004 (Araneae: Philodromidae) et confirmation de la présence de Theridion harmsi Wunderlich, 2011 (Araneae: Theridiidae). Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 33: 59-99 pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Özkütük R S, Gücel S, Fuller Ö Ö, Kunt K B (2019c) Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch, 1864 (Araneae: Cheiracanthiidae), a new faunistic record for Cyprus. Serket 16: 184-187 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pesarini C (unpubl.)

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Rozwałka R, Rutkowski T, Bielak-Bielecki P (2013) New data on introduced and rare synanthropic spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) in Poland. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin-Polonia 68: 127-150 pdf

Rozwałka R, Rutkowski T, Bielak-Bielecki P (2017a) New data on introduced and rare synanthropic spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) in Poland (II). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin-Polonia 71: 59-85 pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Sterghiu C (1985) Fam. Clubionidae. Fauna Republicii Socialiste România (Arachnida) 5 (4): 1-168 pdf

Van Keer K, Van Keer J, De Koninck, Vanuytven H (2007) Another Mediterranean spider, Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch, 1864 (Araneae: Miturgidae), new to Belgium. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 22: 61-64 pdf

Vetter R S, Isbister G K, Bush S P, Boutin L J (2006) Verified bites by yellow sac spiders (genus Cheiracanthium) in the United States and in Australia: where is the necrosis? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 74: 1043-1048 pdf

Wolf A (unpubl.)

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

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