Thomisidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Xysticus  C. L. Koch, 1835   83 species

Xysticus luctuosus  (Blackwall, 1836)

Description

Palp female: strongly spined. Male: tegulum with 2 sclerotised folds. Tibial apophysis bipartite, a furcated, rather small, ventral apophysis and in lateral view massive retrolateral apophysis narrowing toward the tip. Embolus with claw-like, strongly sclerotised terminal part. Epigyne with typical sclerotised structures in posterior lateral area of grooves. Epigynal groove distinctly more slender posteriorly than anteriorly. Vulva with strongly widened entrance duct, connecting broadly and in slightly transverse course to the horizontally lying receptacula. Prosoma red-brown, brown to dark brown, roughly spotted. Female: with striking bright and dark moon-like spots. Male: posterior median eyes surrounded by yellowish rings. Sternum round to longish oval, white spotted, margin dark brown. Chelicerae weakly spined frontally. Legs dark brown, with irregular, white spots, legs appear smooth and shining, patella (in females femur to tibia) with bright longitudinal line, otherwise no longitudinal stripes but spots on leg segments. Opisthosoma light red-brown, with vague, dark folium and interrupted longitudinal stripes. Spinnerets brown.

Body length male: 4-5 mm
Body length female: 5.5-8 mm
Additional information

On the ground and in herbaceous layer of forests, partly in humid places, occurring from lowland to mountainous level

Frequency: Not frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): North America, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Braendegaard J (1972a) Edderkopper eller spindlere I. Danmarks Fauna 72

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

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Helsdingen P J van (1986a) The Porrhomma microphthalmum species-group. Bull Br Arachnol Soc 7: 11-16

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Jantscher E (2001a) Revision der Krabbenspinnengattung Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 (Araneae, Thomisidae) in Zentraleuropa. Dissertation: 1-328 pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.01.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
04-09-2019 Image insert
13-03-2018 Image insert
07-03-2016 Image insert