Thomisidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Xysticus  C. L. Koch, 1835   106 species

Xysticus luctator  L. Koch, 1870

Description

Male palp dark brown. Median bulbal apophysis with 2 tips arranged rectangularly. Tibial apophysis bipartite, massive ventral and inconspicuous retrolateral apophysis. Epigyne with wide-oval epigynal groove, with broad, protruding septum. Vulva with anterior part consisting of 2 funnel-shaped, very dark parts, broadened posteriorly. Prosoma strongly bulged, round. Female: light beige to sandy-brown without distinct pattern, but with 2 dark moon-like spots on posterior margin of prosoma. Male: black-brown, eye field bright, 2 dark brown moon-like spots (sometimes 2 additional bright ones) on posterior margin of prosoma. Sternum longish oval to shield-shaped, brown to light brown with cream spots. Chelicerae brown with bright transverse band and one longer spine (female frontally many short spines). Legs dark brown, contrast-rich with white spots on junction femur/patella, distal leg segments brighter. Females overall with inconspicuous, bright legs. Metatarsus I and II and tibia with strikingly high number of spines. Opisthosoma female: beige, without pattern. Males: brown to dark brown, with thin cream margin and white, interrupted transverse bands in posterior third.

Body length male: 5.9-8.4 mm
Body length female: 7-10 mm
Additional information

from lowland to mountainous level, in habitats with poor vegetation

Frequency: Not frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to South Siberia), Kazakhstan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Aakra K, Morka G H, Antonson A, Farlund M, Wrånes R E, Frølandshagen R, Løvbrekke H, Furuseth P, Fjellberg A, Lemke M, Pfliegler W P, Andersen S, Olsen K M, Aadland B, Berggren K (2016) Spiders new to Norway (Arachnida, Araneae) with ecological, taxonomical and faunistic comments. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 63: 6-43

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Braendegaard J (1972a) Edderkopper eller spindlere I. Danmarks Fauna 72

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Jantscher E (2001a) Revision der Krabbenspinnengattung Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 (Araneae, Thomisidae) in Zentraleuropa. Dissertation: 1-328 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Locket G H, Millidge A F, Merrett P (1974) British Spiders 3. Ray Soc London

Mikhailov K G (2013) The spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Russia and adjacent countries: a non-annotated checklist. Arthropoda Selecta, Supplement 3: 1-262 pdf

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.01.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
14-01-2017 Image insert
09-05-2016 Image insert
01-12-2013 Distribution update Old value