Gnaphosidae  Pocock, 1898 / Gnaphosa  Latreille, 1804   66 species

Gnaphosa lucifuga  (Walckenaer, 1802)

Description

Male palp lighter than body colour. Embolus robust, runs along ± the whole inner side of cymbium. Epigyne with very broad scapus, touching bar-like protrusions of lateral epigynal margins. Prosoma dark red-brown to black-brown, eye region darker. Chelicerae darker than prosoma. Legs lighter than prosoma. Opisthosoma dark red-brown to black-brown.

Body length male: 10.5-14.9 mm
Body length female: 12.1-18.7 mm
Additional information

in sunny dry meadows, rock steppes and heathland, under stones during the day

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Russia (Europe to South Siberia), Kazakhstan, China
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Déjean S (2015c) Contribution à l'inventaire des araignées (Arachnida, Araneae) et opilions (Arachnida, Opiliones) de l'île de Porquerolles (Var, Provence, France). Scientific Reports of Port-Cros national Park 29: 75-102 pdf

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2019) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 10.2019. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Ovtsharenko V I, Platnick N I, Song D X (1992) A review of the North Asian ground spiders of the genus Gnaphosa (Araneae, Gnaphosidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 212: 1-88

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion Natuur Baarn, Netherlands

Tullgren A (1946) Svensk spindelfauna. 3. Egentiliga spinddlar. Araneae Fam 5-7. Clubionidae, Zoridae och Gnaphosidae. pl. I - XXI Stockholm (Entomol Fören): 1-141

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.09.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
21-09-2019 Image insert
03-02-2017 Image insert
10-12-2013 Distribution update Old value