Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Theridion  Walckenaer, 1805   46 species

Theridion melanurum  Hahn, 1831

Description
Male

Conductor ± circular. Palp: tibia as long as bulb. Prosoma 1-1.6 mm long. Characters as in female, but epigastric area markedly bulging.

Body length male: 2.5-4.5 mm
Female

Epigyne with posteriorly indented groove. Vulva with double-looped entrance ducts. Prosoma dark brown, suffused with black, margin black. Prosoma 1-1.6 mm long. Sternum dark brown. Legs light brown, with thin black annulations. Opisthosoma colour very variable, dorsally with bright longitudinal band.

Body length female: 2.5-4.6 mm
Additional information

In crevices and mural chinks (but not together with T. betteni), in the mountains up to 1500 m.

Frequency: Very frequent, widely distributed

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Macaronesia, North Africa, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Middle Siberia), Middle East. Introduced to USA
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Peak between April and July.
Figures
References

Aakra K (2000a) New records of spiders (Araneae) from Norway with notes on epigynal characters of Philodromus fuscomarginatus (De Geer) (Philodromidae) and Araneus sturmi (Hahn) (Araneidae). Norwegian Journal of Entomology 47: 77-88

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F, Merrett P (1974) British Spiders 3. Ray Soc London

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Thaler K (1966) Fragmenta Faunistica Tirolensia (Diplopoda, Arachnida). Ber Nat - Med Ver Innsbruck 54: 151-157

Vanuytven H (2014) Theridion asopi n. sp., a new member of the Theridion melanurum group (Araneae: Theridiidae) in Europe. Arachnology 16: 127-134

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Tierwelt Deutschlands 33

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.01.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
16-05-2018 Distribution update Old value
05-08-2014 Image insert
04-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
15-10-2013 Distribution update Old value
15-04-2013 Distribution update Old value