Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Enoplognatha  Pavesi, 1880   30 species

Enoplognatha mandibularis  (Lucas, 1846)

Description

Male palp with large basal tubercles on radix. Conductor with simple, short tip. Embolus short. Epigyne with approximately heart-shaped epigynal groove, ± as wide as long, with unsclerotised posterior margin, paler than the sclerotised depression. Prosoma light brown. Sternum black-brown. Chelicerae brown. Legs light brown, sometimes with darker rings. Opisthosoma blackish, ventrally unicoloured, dorsally with large, grey-yellow folium, which shows large, black spots on sides and in heart region.

Body length male: 2.2-6 mm
Body length female: 2.4-8 mm
Additional information

biology not certainly known, because often confused with similar species

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Israel, Russia (Europe) to Central Asia, Iran, China
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Females with egg sac in May and December.
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (Vrenozi & Jäger, 2012) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (no references) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Libya   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Malta   (Pfliegler et al., 2017) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) |||
References

Azheganova N S (1968) Kratkii opredelitel' paukov (Aranei) lesnoi i lesostepnoi zony SSSR. Akademia Nauk SSSR, 149pp. pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J (1999) The genus Enoplognatha Pavesi, 1880 in the Mediterranean region (Araneae: Theridiidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 209-241 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British spiders. Vol. II. Ray Society, London, 449 pp. pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Vrenozi B, Jäger P (2012) A faunistic study on ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae) in the Tirana district, Albania. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 44: 81-87 pdf

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 33: 119-222 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf