Thomisidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Xysticus  C. L. Koch, 1835   106 species

Xysticus cristatus  (Clerck, 1757)

Description

Male palp with 2 apophyses: one median, hammer-shaped, whereas the branches are unequally long and tapering. Second apophysis lying prolaterally, punnet-shaped with small inconspicuous tooth in the middle. Female: palp provided with dense robust spines. Ventral tibial apophysis broad at base and slanting distal edge. Retrolateral apophysis broad at base and tapering toward the tip. Embolus characteristic, fine, divided into 2 small tips at its end. Epigyne consists of 2 distinctly sclerotised, C-shaped pits and a median septum not too slender, pits can be plugged with a dark secretion drop. Vulva with entrance duct characteristically bent toward anterior part and then strongly toward posterior before passing over to receptacula. Prosoma contrastingly white and dark brown, laterally with broad black stripes, median triangle large, with distinct black spot posteriorly, margined arc-like on each side by bright stripes. Sternum medially white, with small brown spots or marbled brown on beige background (very variable), margin of sternum yellow to beige-brown. Chelicerae brown, to beige, frontally with several short and one longer spine. Legs brown, longitudinally striped, mostly darker dorsally, retrolaterally with longish hairless areas. Opisthosoma very variable in colour (female slightly brighter overall), distinctly patterned with characteristic light brown-ochre triangles on dark background. Spinnerets brown, with white border.

Body length male: 3.5-6.1 mm
Body length female: 4.7-8 mm
Additional information

Near the ground on low plants, euryoecious, occurring up to approximately 1000 m.

Frequency: Frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2018): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Middle and South Siberia), Iran, Central Asia, China, Korea, Japan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

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Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

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Jantscher E (2001a) Revision der Krabbenspinnengattung Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 (Araneae, Thomisidae) in Zentraleuropa. Dissertation: 1-328 pdf

Jantscher E (2001b) Diagnostic characters of Xysticus cristatus, X. audax and X. macedonicus (Araneae: Thomisidae). Bull Br Arachnol Soc 12 (1): 17-25

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Lissner J, Jensen J-K, Hansen L J, Simonsen W, Kelduni R, Nissen K (2016b) An updated checklist of spiders (Araneae) of the Faroe Islands. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 63: 197-240 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Palmgren P (1983) Die Philodromus aureolus-Gruppe und die Xysticus cristatus-Gruppe (Araneae) in Finnland. Ann Zool Fenn 20: 203-206

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Vilbaste A (1969) Eesti Ämblikud I. Krabiämbliklased (Xysticidae), Jooksikämbliklased (Philodromidae) ja Hüpikämbliklased (Salticidae). Zooloogia ja Botaanika Instituut, Tallinn: 224 pp. pdf

World Spider Catalog (2018) World Spider Catalog, version 19.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (15.07.2018) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
02-10-2018 Image insert
09-08-2018 Image insert
12-07-2018 Image insert
07-03-2016 Image insert