Thomisidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Xysticus  C. L. Koch, 1835   82 species

Xysticus cristatus  (Clerck, 1757)

Description

Male palp with 2 apophyses: one median, hammer-shaped, whereas the branches are unequally long and tapering. Second apophysis lying prolaterally, punnet-shaped with small inconspicuous tooth in the middle. Female: palp provided with dense robust spines. Ventral tibial apophysis broad at base and slanting distal edge. Retrolateral apophysis broad at base and tapering toward the tip. Embolus characteristic, fine, divided into 2 small tips at its end. Epigyne consists of 2 distinctly sclerotised, C-shaped pits and a median septum not too slender, pits can be plugged with a dark secretion drop. Vulva with entrance duct characteristically bent toward anterior part and then strongly toward posterior before passing over to receptacula. Prosoma contrastingly white and dark brown, laterally with broad black stripes, median triangle large, with distinct black spot posteriorly, margined arc-like on each side by bright stripes. Sternum medially white, with small brown spots or marbled brown on beige background (very variable), margin of sternum yellow to beige-brown. Chelicerae brown, to beige, frontally with several short and one longer spine. Legs brown, longitudinally striped, mostly darker dorsally, retrolaterally with longish hairless areas. Opisthosoma very variable in colour (female slightly brighter overall), distinctly patterned with characteristic light brown-ochre triangles on dark background. Spinnerets brown, with white border.

Body length male: 3.5-6.1 mm
Body length female: 4.7-8 mm
Additional information

Near the ground on low plants, euryoecious, occurring up to approximately 1000 m.

Frequency: Frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Middle and South Siberia), Iran, Central Asia, China, Korea, Japan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (no references) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Andorra   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2020) ||| Belarus   (Ivanov, 2013) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bosnia and Herzegovina   (Komnenov, 2010) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Egypt   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Estonia   (no references) ||| Faroe Islands   (Lissner et al., 2016b) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Iceland   (Agnarsson, 1996) ||| Ireland   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Kosovo   (no references) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Luxembourg   (Hermann, 1998; Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Northern Ireland   (no references) ||| Norway   (Aakra & Hauge, 2003) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Kaliningrad Region   (no references) ||| Russia, Northern   (Nekhaeva, 2020) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Russia, Western   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Sweden   (Kronestedt, 2001) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Aakra K, Hauge E (2003) Checklist of Norwegian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae), including Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 50: 109-129 pdf

Agnarsson I (1996) Íslenskar köngulær Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar 31: 1-175 pdf

Azheganova N S (1968) Kratkii opredelitel' paukov (Aranei) lesnoi i lesostepnoi zony SSSR. Akademia Nauk SSSR, 149pp. pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Brændegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Hermann E (1998) Die Spinnen (Araneae) ausgewählter Halbtrockenrasen im Osten Luxemburgs. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes Luxembourgeois 99: 189-199 pdf

Ivanov V V (2013) The checklist of Belarusian spiders (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoology and Ecology 4: 293-311 pdf

Jäger P (1995a) Faunistische Untersuchungen an Spinnen (Araneae) der Wahner Heide (Nordrhein-Westfalen) mit Anmerkungen zur Biologie und Taxonomie. Diplomarbeit, Zoologisches Institut, Universität zu Köln pdf

Jantscher E (2001a) Revision der Krabbenspinnengattung Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 (Araneae, Thomisidae) in Zentraleuropa. Dissertation: 1-328 pdf

Jantscher E (2001b) Diagnostic characters of Xysticus cristatus, X. audax and X. macedonicus (Araneae: Thomisidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12: 17-25 pdf

Komnenov M (2010) Checklist of spiders (Araneae) of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Uzizaž i Biospeld 5(2009): 52-69 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Kronestedt T (2001) Checklist of Spiders (Araneae) in Sweden [Preliminary version February 2001] pdf

Lissner J, Jensen J-K, Hansen L J, Simonsen W, Kelduni R, Nissen K (2016b) An updated checklist of spiders (Araneae) of the Faroe Islands. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 63: 197-240 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British spiders. Vol. I. Ray Society, London, 310 pp. pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Nekhaeva A A (2020) On the spider fauna (Arachnida: Aranei) of the Kanin Peninsula and Kolguev Island, Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia. Arthropoda Selecta 29: 387-398 pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Palmgren P (1983) Die Philodromus aureolus-Gruppe und die Xysticus cristatus-Gruppe (Araneae) in Finnland. Annales Zoologici Fennici 20: 203-206 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Vilbaste A (1969) Eesti Ämblikud I. Krabiämbliklased (Xysticidae), Jooksikämbliklased (Philodromidae) ja Hüpikämbliklased (Salticidae). Zooloogia ja Botaanika Instituut, Tallinn: 224 pp. pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
02-10-2020 Distribution update Detail
08-06-2020 Distribution update Detail
18-03-2020 Distribution insert Detail
02-10-2018 Image insert
09-08-2018 Image insert
12-07-2018 Image insert
07-03-2016 Image insert