Gnaphosidae  Pocock, 1898 / Gnaphosa  Latreille, 1804   66 species

Gnaphosa bicolor  (Hahn, 1833)

Description

Palp female: yellow-orange, male: with short, stout spines on femur and tibia. Epigyne with striking transverse folds of epigynal groove. Prosoma dark red-brown to black-brown. Femur yellow-orange. Metatarsus and coxa yellow-orange. Opisthosoma dark red-brown to black-brown.

Body length male: 6.2-8.4 mm
Body length female: 6.8-10 mm
Additional information

in hilly and mountainous terrain, in bright forests or rocky steppes, under stones during the day, in leaf litter layer, up to 1000 m

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to West Siberia)
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Naumova M, Hristovski S, Hristov G H (2016b) Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from Prespa National Park, Albania. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 68: 503-511 pdf

Otto S (2019) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 10.2019. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Ovtsharenko V I, Platnick N I, Song D X (1992) A review of the North Asian ground spiders of the genus Gnaphosa (Araneae, Gnaphosidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 212: 1-88

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Tullgren A (1946) Svensk spindelfauna. 3. Egentiliga spinddlar. Araneae Fam 5-7. Clubionidae, Zoridae och Gnaphosidae. pl. I - XXI Stockholm (Entomol Fören): 1-141

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.09.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
14-10-2019 Image insert
11-05-2018 Distribution update Old value
01-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
09-04-2013 Distribution update Old value