Amaurobiidae  Thorell, 1870 / Amaurobius  C. L. Koch, 1837   38 species

Amaurobius ferox  (Walckenaer, 1830)

Description

Tibial apophysis with shallow, roundish bulge dorsally. Epigyne with rounded lateral parts, median part ± semicircular. Prosoma red-brown, eye region almost black. Sternum yellowish. Chelicerae red-brown, to almost black. Legs red-brown, vaguely annulated. Opisthosoma black-grey, dorsally with irregular, yellowish spots.

Body length male: 8-10 mm
Body length female: 11-16 mm
Additional information

Almost only in caves, basements and humid mural chinks.

This species can bite humans when accidently squeezing them. The bite is painful as a wasp sting and disappeared completely after 12 hours. There may be a moderate local swelling and redness.

Troglophile species (Mammola et al. 2018)

Frequency: Frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Sardinia (P. Pantini, pers. comm.)
Global distribution (WSC 2021): Europe, Turkey. Introduced to Canada, USA, Mexico
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Austria   (no references) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Ireland   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Luxembourg   (Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| Northern Ireland   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Sweden   (Kronestedt, 2001) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2021a) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2021a) ||| Ukraine   (no references) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Ballarin F, Pantini P (2017) A new species of Amaurobius C.L. Koch, 1837 (Araneae: Amaurobiidae) from Apennine Mountains (Italy) with the description of the male of A. pavesii Pesarini, 1991. Zootaxa 4276: 479-502 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Brændegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2021a) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2021 [last updated 1 January 2021], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Dresco E (1977) Recherches sur les Amaurobius (Araneae, Amaurobiidae) et description de A. tessinensis sp. nov. du Tessin (Suisse). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 84: 873-882 pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kovács G, Szinetár C (2020) Adatok a nagy eretnekpók (Amaurobius ferox [Walckenaer, 1830]) biológiájához (Araneae: Amaurobiidae) [Data on the biology of Amaurobius ferox (Walckenaer, 1830) (Araneae: Amaurobiidae)]. Biológia Savaria Természettudományi és Sporttudományi Közlemények 18: 75-92 pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Kronestedt T (2001) Checklist of Spiders (Araneae) in Sweden [Preliminary version February 2001] pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British spiders. Vol. I. Ray Society, London, 310 pp. pdf

Loksa I (1969) Pokok I-Araneae I. Fauna Hungariae 97: 1-133 pdf

Mammola S, Cardoso P, Ribera C, Pavlek M, Isaia M (2018b) A synthesis on cave-dwelling spiders in Europe. Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 56: 301-316 pdf

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pesarini C (1991) The Amaurobiidae of Northern Italy (Araneae). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 131: 261-276 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 42: 1-150 pdf

WSC (2021) World Spider Catalog. Version 22.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (29.05.2021) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
04-11-2020 Gallery image insert
19-06-2020 Image insert
27-08-2019 Distribution update Detail
16-06-2017 Image insert
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Detail
09-04-2013 Distribution update Detail