Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Rugathodes  Archer, 1950   4 species

Rugathodes bellicosus  (Simon, 1873)

Description
Male

Prosoma yellowish-brown, with darker median area. Prosoma 1 mm long. Sternum yellow-brown, sometimes tinged with black. Chelicerae male: very long and with conical hump. Legs yellow-brown, rarely with slightly darker joints. Epigastric area not bulging.

Body length male: 1.5-2.0 mm
Female

Prosoma 0.8 mm long. Chelicerae: promargin with 2 or 3 teeth. Legs: metatarsus III with trichobothrium. Opisthosoma dorsally yellowish brown, sometimes with darker blotches on the sides, ventrally lighter, often with a dark blotch.

Body length female: 1.5-2 mm
Additional information

In low vegetation and under stones or in block fields of subalpine and alpine region, also in low mountain ranges, mostly near creeks, also in pine or birch woods. Egg sac whitish, females carry their egg sac attached to the spinnerets.

Troglophile species (Mammola et al. 2018)

Frequency: Widely distributed

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Russia (Europe to South Siberia)
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Female with egg sac in August.
Figures
Distribution List
Austria   (no references) ||| Belarus   (Ivanov, 2013) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Hungary   (no references) ||| Iceland   (Agnarsson, 1996) ||| Ireland   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Norway   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (no references) ||| Russia, Western   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Barrientos & Febrer, 2020) ||| Sweden   (no references) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Agnarsson I (1996) Íslenskar köngulær Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar 31: 1-175 pdf

Barrientos J A, Febrer J B (2020) Arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España). 3: nuevos datos. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 36: 69-78 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae).
[N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Esyunin S L, Efimik V E (1995) Remarks on the Ural spider fauna, 4. New records of spider species (excluding Linyphiidae) from the Urals (Arachnida Aranei). Arthropoda Selecta 4(1): 71-91 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Ivanov V V (2013) The checklist of Belarusian spiders (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoology and Ecology 4: 293-311 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British spiders. Vol. II. Ray Society, London, 449 pp. pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Mammola S, Cardoso P, Ribera C, Pavlek M, Isaia M (2018b) A synthesis on cave-dwelling spiders in Europe. Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 56: 301-316 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N Y, Prokopenko E V (2013) Catalogue of the spiders (Arachnida, Aranei) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arthropoda Selecta (Suppl.) 2: 1-268 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 33: 119-222 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
05-07-2020 Distribution insert Detail
13-03-2018 Image insert
24-04-2015 Distribution update Detail
06-05-2014 Image insert