Thomisidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Xysticus  C. L. Koch, 1835   82 species

Xysticus audax  (Schrank, 1803)

Description

Male palp with basal part of T-shaped bulbal apophysis ± as long as wide. A punnet-like protruding apophysis with a big pointed tooth lies prolaterally on the bulbus. Tibial apophysis ventrally right-angled with straight ending, the other apophysis lies retrolaterally, broad at the base and tapering toward the tip. Embolus broad with undivided tip, bent in transparent part. Epigyne medially with strongly sclerotised inner margins of epigynal groove. Vulva with horizontal ducts posterior to the sac-like inflated walls of the entrance ducts. Prosoma dark lateral stripes, posteriorly divided. Brightness variable. Chelicerae brown, frontally with 2 long spines. Legs dark, mostly spotted contrastingly with white and brown, but also partly bright. Dorsally with rough, cream and brown spots. Female: dorsally with olive-brown and white longitudinal stripes on femur, patella and tibia. Spinnerets brown.

Body length male: 3.5-4.6 mm
Body length female: 3.8-8 mm
Additional information

in vegetation, also in areas away from the ground, mainly on broom and heath. Mostly found in the litter layer, from lowland and up to 2300 m

Frequency: Frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Japan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Andorra   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Armenia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Belarus   (Ivanov, 2013) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bosnia and Herzegovina   (Komnenov, 2010) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Estonia   (no references) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Hungary   (no references) ||| Ireland   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Kosovo   (no references) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Luxembourg   (Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Norway   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Kaliningrad Region   (no references) ||| Russia, Northern   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Russia, Western   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Sweden   (no references) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae).
[N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Brændegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Dentici A, Amata F C (2018) New faunistic data for the Sicilian arachnofauna (Arachnida Araneae). Biodiversity Journal 9: 271-276 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Ivanov V V (2013) The checklist of Belarusian spiders (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoology and Ecology 4: 293-311 pdf

Jantscher E (2001a) Revision der Krabbenspinnengattung Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 (Araneae, Thomisidae) in Zentraleuropa. Dissertation: 1-328 pdf

Jantscher E (2001b) Diagnostic characters of Xysticus cristatus, X. audax and X. macedonicus (Araneae: Thomisidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12: 17-25 pdf

Komnenov M (2010) Checklist of spiders (Araneae) of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Uzizaž i Biospeld 5(2009): 52-69 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British spiders. Vol. I. Ray Society, London, 310 pp. pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Ono H (1988) A revisional study of the spider family Thomisidae (Arachnida, Araneae) of Japan. National Science Museum, Tokyo, 252 pp. pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Palmgren P (1983) Die Philodromus aureolus-Gruppe und die Xysticus cristatus-Gruppe (Araneae) in Finnland. Annales Zoologici Fennici 20: 203-206 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
08-06-2020 Distribution update Detail
16-10-2018 Distribution update Detail
02-10-2018 Image insert
12-07-2018 Image insert
09-05-2016 Image insert
07-03-2016 Image insert
15-10-2013 Distribution update Detail