Thomisidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Xysticus  C. L. Koch, 1835   106 species

Xysticus audax  (Schrank, 1803)

Description

Male palp with basal part of T-shaped bulbal apophysis ± as long as wide. A punnet-like protruding apophysis with a big pointed tooth lies prolaterally on the bulbus. Tibial apophysis ventrally right-angled with straight ending, the other apophysis lies retrolaterally, broad at the base and tapering toward the tip. Embolus broad with undivided tip, bent in transparent part. Epigyne medially with strongly sclerotised inner margins of epigynal groove. Vulva with horizontal ducts posterior to the sac-like inflated walls of the entrance ducts. Prosoma dark lateral stripes, posteriorly divided. Brightness variable. Chelicerae brown, frontally with 2 long spines. Legs dark, mostly spotted contrastingly with white and brown, but also partly bright. Dorsally with rough, cream and brown spots. Female: dorsally with olive-brown and white longitudinal stripes on femur, patella and tibia. Spinnerets brown.

Body length male: 3.5-4.6 mm
Body length female: 3.8-8 mm
Additional information

in vegetation, also in areas away from the ground, mainly on broom and heath. Mostly found in the litter layer, from lowland and up to 2300 m

Frequency: Frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2018): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Russia (Europe to Far East), Japan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). Nieuwsbr Belg Arachnol Ver 28: 1-147

Braendegaard J (1972a) Edderkopper eller spindlere I. Danmarks Fauna 72

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2018a) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2017 [last updated 2 September 2018], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Dentici A, Amata F C (2018) New faunistic data for the Sicilian arachnofauna (Arachnida Araneae). Biodiversity Journal 9: 271-276 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Jantscher E (2001a) Revision der Krabbenspinnengattung Xysticus C.L. Koch, 1835 (Araneae, Thomisidae) in Zentraleuropa. Dissertation: 1-328 pdf

Jantscher E (2001b) Diagnostic characters of Xysticus cristatus, X. audax and X. macedonicus (Araneae: Thomisidae). Bull Br Arachnol Soc 12 (1): 17-25

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Ono H (1988) A Revisional Study of the Spider Family Thomisidae (Arachnida, Araneae) of Japan. Tokyo (Nation Sci Mus, New Publ.): 176-179; 172

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Palmgren P (1983) Die Philodromus aureolus-Gruppe und die Xysticus cristatus-Gruppe (Araneae) in Finnland. Ann Zool Fenn 20: 203-206

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

World Spider Catalog (2018) World Spider Catalog, version 19.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (15.07.2018) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
16-10-2018 Distribution update Old value
02-10-2018 Image insert
12-07-2018 Image insert
09-05-2016 Image insert
07-03-2016 Image insert
15-10-2013 Distribution update Old value