Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Theridion  Walckenaer, 1805   55 species

Theridion cinereum  Thorell, 1875

Description
Male

Prosoma 1 mm long. Characters as in female.

Body length male: 2.5 mm
Female

Epigyne wider than long, with a S-shaped structure on each side. Prosoma dark brown, darker on margin, 1.2 mm long. Sternum dark brown. Legs light, with blackisch annulations. Opisthosoma with dark and light blotches, dorsally with a median band, bordered with dark blotches, ventrally blackish, with 2 light blotches near spinnerets.

Body length female: 3.5 mm
Additional information

In leaf litter, under stones, in pine forest and shrubs on dry slopes. Altitude up to 1400 m.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2022): Switzerland and Italy to Ukraine and Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe) to Central Asia, Iran
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (Deltshev et al., 2011b) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2022) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Cyprus   (Bosmans et al., 2019c) ||| Czechia   (Dolansky & Macek, 2014; Řezáč et al., 2021) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (Bosmans et al., 2013) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2022) ||| Russia, Western   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (Dolansky & Macek, 2014) ||| Switzerland   (Hänggi & Stäubli, 2012) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2021a) ||| Ukraine   (no references) |||
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Brignoli P M (1984b) Ragni di Grecia XII. Nuovi dati su varie famiglie (Araneae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 91: 281-321 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2021a) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2021 [last updated 1 January 2021], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144 pdf

Dolansky J, Macek R (2014) Snovačka popelavá Theridion cinereum Thorell, 1875 – nový druh pro Česko i Slovensko. Pavouk 37: 4-5 pdf

Hänggi A, Stäubli A (2012) Nachträge zum „Katalog der schweizerischen Spinnen“: 4. Neunachweise von 2002 bis 2011. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 44: 59-76 pdf

Knoflach B (1998) Mating in Theridion varians Hahn and related species (Araneae: Theridiidae). Journal of Natural History 32: 545-604 pdf

Marusik Y M, Kunt K B, Danışman T (2009c) Spiders (Aranei) new to the fauna of Turkey. 2. New species records of Theridiidae. Arthropoda Selecta 18: 69-75 pdf

Otto S (2022) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 02.2022. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Řezáč M, Růžička V, Hula V, Dolanský J, Machač O, Roušar A (2021) Spiders newly observed in Czechia in recent years – overlooked or invasive species? BioInvasions Records 10: 555-566 pdf

Russell-Smith A, Allison R, Askins M, Blumsom W, Snazell R, Spilling C (2011) A provisional checklist and gazetteer of the spiders of Chios, Greece (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 15: 133-167 pdf

Thaler K (1966) Fragmenta Faunistica Tirolensia (Diplopoda, Arachnida). Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 54: 151-157 pdf

WSC (2022) World Spider Catalog. Version 23.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (21.07.2022) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Zamani A, Nadolny A A, Esyunin S L, Marusik Y M (2021) New data on the spider fauna of Iran (Arachnida: Araneae), part VIII. Zoosystematica Rossica 30: 279-297 pdf

Updates
05-12-2021 Image insert
05-08-2021 Distribution update Detail
05-10-2020 Distribution update Detail
01-08-2017 Distribution update Detail
23-09-2015 Distribution update Detail
04-12-2013 Distribution update Detail
01-12-2013 Distribution update Detail
15-10-2013 Distribution update Detail
30-04-2013 Image insert