Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Latrodectus  Walckenaer, 1805   8 species

Latrodectus tredecimguttatus  (Rossi, 1790)

Description
Male

Colouration as in female, but opisthosomal blotches whitish.

Body length male: 4-7 mm
Female

Vulva: spermathecae contiguous. Prosoma black, glossy, slightly longer than wide. Prosoma 3-5.2 mm long. Legs black, glossy. Opisthosoma black, dorsally with 3 longitudinal series of red blotches, sometimes these blotches are absent and the opisthosoma is entirely black, ventrally with a red blotch behind epigastric furrow, opisthosoma covered with both long hairs and short bifid hairs.

Body length female: 7-15 mm
Additional information

In dry habitats, dunes, sandy beaches, shingle beaches and on low vegetation.

This species can bite humans, as also all other Latrodectus species in the world. Often, a bite causes significant effects, with severe and long-lasting pain in two-thirds of cases, preventing patients from sleeping in one-third of cases. Pain increases in more than half of the cases within the first hour and mostly radiates into the limbs or abdominal pain develops. Typical symptoms include sweating in about 70% of cases and further systemic effects in 20–30% of cases (nausea and vomiting in less than 20%, raised temperature and neuromuscular effects in about 10%, hypertension in less than 10% of cases). Pain usually lasts 1–2 days and the other symptoms 1–4 days. In Europe, bites have become very rare in the last decades. If needed, a symptomatic medical treatment is recommended.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Mediterranea, Ukraine, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to South Siberia), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Algeria   ( no references ) ||| Azerbaijan   ( no references ) ||| Bosnia and Herzegovina   ( no references ) ||| Bulgaria   ( no references ) ||| Croatia   ( no references ) ||| Cyprus   ( no references ) ||| Egypt   ( no references ) ||| France   ( no references ) ||| France / Corsica   ( no references ) ||| Georgia   ( no references ) ||| Greece   ( no references ) ||| Greece / Crete   ( no references ) ||| Italy   ( no references ) ||| Italy / Sardinia   ( no references ) ||| Italy / Sicily   ( no references ) ||| Libya   ( no references ) ||| Montenegro   ( no references ) ||| Morocco   ( no references ) ||| North Macedonia   ( no references ) ||| Portugal   ( no references ) ||| Romania   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Eastern   ( no references ) ||| Russia, Southern   ( no references ) ||| Serbia   ( no references ) ||| Spain   ( no references ) ||| Tunisia   ( no references ) ||| Turkey (Asia)   ( no references ) ||| Turkey (Europe)   ( no references ) ||| Ukraine   ( no references ) |||
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Brignoli P M (1967c) Notizie sui Theridiidae del Lazio (Araneae). Fragm ent 4: 177-197

Brignoli P M (1984b) Ragni di Grecia XII. Nuovi dati su varie famiglie (Araneae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 91: 281-321

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Isbister G K, White J (2004) Clinical consequences of spider bites: recent advances in our understanding. Toxicon 43: 477–492

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Levy G (1998b) Araneae: Theridiidae. In Fauna Palaestina, Arachnida III. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem. , 228 pp. pdf

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Otto S (2019) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 10.2019. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.09.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
04-02-2020 Datasheet update Detail
01-12-2013 Distribution update Detail
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Detail
04-06-2013 Image insert
30-04-2013 Image insert
01-04-2013 Image insert