Sicariidae  Keyserling, 1880 / Loxosceles  Heineken & Lowe, 1835   2 species

Loxosceles rufescens  (Dufour, 1820)

Description
Male

Pedipalp male: with thickened tibia. Embolus curved, about as long as width of bulbus. Prosoma orange-brown. Prosoma 3 mm long. Clypeus narrower than in female. Legs yellow to orange. Opisthosoma grey to yellowish brown

Body length male: 7-7.5 mm
Female

Vulva with receptacula close together, produced into rounded lobes projecting to inner side. Prosoma 3.2 mm long. Prosoma reddish yellow, darker in the front, with sparse hairs. Clypeus wide, almost 3 diameters of median eyes. Legs uniformly reddish yellow. Opisthosoma greyish to reddish yellow.

Body length female: 7-7.5 mm
Additional information

In dry habitats, under stones, rock crevices. Often in and around houses and buildings.

This species can bite humans, as also all other Loxosceles species in the world. In contrast to all other spider bites, this bite does not cause pain but could cause necrotic lesions. Most bites cause moderate local itchiness and redness, self-healing without complications within short time. Severer cases are rare and may include necrotic injuries, sometimes healing only after months. However, such cases are rare for this European species.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Troglophile species (Mammola et al. 2018)

Distribution
  Presence
  Not established
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2018): Southern Europe, northern Africa to Iran. Introduced to USA, Macaronesia, South Africa, India, China, Japan, Korea, Laos, Thailand, Australia, Hawaii
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Females also in spring.
Figures
References

Crespo L C, Cardoso P, Henriques S, Gaspar C (2009b) Spiders (Araneae) from Porto Santo (Madeira, Portgal): Additions to the current knowledge. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa 45: 471-475

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2018a) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2017 [last updated 2 September 2018], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Gertsch W J, Ennik F (1983) The spider genus Loxosceles in North America, Central America, and the West Indies (Araneae, Loxoscelidae). Bull Am Mus nat Hist 175: 264-360

Hänggi A, Stäubli A (2012) Nachträge zum „Katalog der schweizerischen Spinnen“: 4. Neunachweise von 2002 bis 2011. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 44: 59-76

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mém Soc Linn Lyon 2: 1-522

Mammola S, Cardoso P, Ribera C, Pavlek M, Isaia M (2018b) A synthesis on cave-dwelling spiders in Europe. Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 56: 301-316 pdf

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2018) World Spider Catalog, version 19.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (15.07.2018) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
02-02-2017 Image insert
29-12-2016 Distribution update Old value
22-06-2016 Distribution update Old value
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Old value