Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Steatoda  Sundevall, 1833   18 species

Steatoda triangulosa  (Walckenaer, 1802)

Description
Male

Conductor long and bent. Tibia of male palpal longer than cymbium. Prosoma red-brown, wrinkled, 1.6-2 mm long. Sternum red-brown, wrinkled. Chelicerae brown, shiny. Legs yellowish, to bright red-brown, all segments sometimes distally darkened. Opisthosoma dark brown to almost black, pattern yellowish, sometimes broken into single spots.

Body length male: 3.5-5 mm
Female

Epigyne small and rounded. Prosoma 1.8-2 mm long. Colouration as in male.

Body length female: 3.5-8.6 mm
Additional information

Only in buildings in Central Europe, at dry, sunny places under stones in the south, in caves, dunes, forests, garrigue, fallow land, marshes, rocky seashore, littoral salty areas.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Frequency: Not frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia. Introduced to Canada, USA, Canary Is.
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (no references) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Andorra   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2020) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bosnia and Herzegovina   (Stanković & Ćurĉić, 2020) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Cyprus   (Bosmans et al., 2019c) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Egypt   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (no references) ||| Hungary   (Samu & Szinetár, 1999) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Libya   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Luxembourg   (Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Malta   (Pfliegler et al., 2017) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Morocco   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Northern   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Faúndez E I, Carvajal M A (2016) The spider genus Steatoda Sundevall, 1833 (Araneae: Theridiidae) in the State of North Dakota (USA). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 29: 83-85 pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Lissner J, Scharff N (2017) Danish Spiders. Online at http://www.danmarks-edderkopper.dk pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pesarini C (unpubl.)

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Rozwałka R, Rutkowski T, Bielak-Bielecki P (2013) New data on introduced and rare synanthropic spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) in Poland. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin-Polonia 68: 127-150 pdf

Samu F, Szinetár C (1999) Bibliographic check list of the Hungarian spider fauna. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 161-184 pdf

Stanković M, Ćurĉić M (2020) New species in the arachnofauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina from the protected habitat of Gromiţelj, Velino Selo. Archives for Technical Sciences 22: 67-78 pdf

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 33: 119-222 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Yoshida H (2001) The spider genera Robertus, Enoplognatha, Steatoda and Crustulina (Araneae: Theridiidae) from Japan. Acta Arachnologica 50: 31-48 pdf

Updates
08-06-2020 Distribution update Detail
06-05-2020 Distribution insert Detail
24-01-2017 Distribution update Detail
30-12-2016 Image insert
13-05-2014 Distribution update Detail
15-04-2013 Distribution update Detail