Scytodidae  Blackwall, 1864 / Scytodes  Latreille, 1804   12 species

Scytodes thoracica  (Latreille, 1802)

Description
Male

Bulbus with a long, tapering embolus. Prosoma 2 mm long. Prosoma yellowish, equally large or larger than opisthosoma, dorsal line ascending posteriorly, pattern brown-black. Chelicerae weakly developed. Legs yellow-brown to black, annulated. Opisthosoma yellowish with brown-black pattern.

Body length male: 3.5-4 mm
Female

Prosoma 3 mm long. Cephalothorax almost as large as opisthosoma. Prosoma pale yellowish, with black pattern. Sternum pale yellow, labium slightly darker. Legs pale yellowish. Opisthosoma pale yellowish, with pairs of black patches on midline, and small black blotches on the side.

Body length female: 4-5.5 mm
Additional information

Outdoor in the southern parts of Europe, in heathland, scrub, rocky littoral, gardens, under stones, mainly in buildings, active during the night. Slow and skulking movements, does not build webs, but spits poison and adhesive from modified poison glands through large cheliceral opening on prey up to 20 mm away, which then is stuck to the surface.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Iran, temperate Asia to China, Korea, Japan. Introduced to North America, Argentina, India, Australia, New Zealand
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Females with egg sac in August.
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Braendegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224

Bürgis H (1990) Die Speispinne Scytodes thoracica (Araneae: Sicariidae). Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie und Biologie. Mitt Pollichia 77: 289-313

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Loksa I (1969) Pokok I-Araneae I. Fauna Hungariae 97: 2.1-2.133

Otto S (2019) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 10.2019. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. [Old pdf-version: Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at Pantini_&_Isaia_- _Checklist_of_the_Italian_spiders._June_2018.] Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Tierwelt Deutschlands 42

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.09.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
16-05-2018 Distribution update Old value
04-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
16-04-2013 Image insert
15-04-2013 Distribution update Old value