Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Enoplognatha  Pavesi, 1880   26 species

Enoplognatha thoracica  (Hahn, 1833)

Description
Male

Male palp with distinctly protruding radix. Prosoma 1.2-1.7 mm long. Colouration as in female. Chelicerae with a strong basal tooth and a blunt distal tooth, both with 1 or 2 denticles, distal part of chelicerae not swollen.

Body length male: 2.6-4.5 mm
Female

Epigyne square, with large rounded openings. Prosoma dark brown, 1.2-1.7 mm long. Legs dark brown, relatively short. Opisthosoma dark brown, dorsally sometimes with some white spots.

Body length female: 3-5.9 mm
Additional information

In grasslands, meadows, deciduous forests, pine forests, heathlands, dunes, vineyards, cereal fields, saline marshes, littoral areas, under stones and detritus, among leaf litter, directly on the ground, in very warm and sunny places. Egg sacs whitish.

Frequency: Frequent, widely distributed

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): North America, Europe, Turkey, North Africa, Syria, Iran, Turkmenistan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Females with egg sac in June and July.
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J (1999) The genus Enoplognatha Pavesi, 1880 in the Mediterranean region (Araneae: Theridiidae). Bull Br Arachnol Soc 11: 209-241

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Ponomarev A V, Khnykin A S (2013) Spiders (Aranei) of Volgograd sity and its environs. The South of Russia: ecology, development 4: 109-136

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Tierwelt Deutschlands 33

World Spider Catalog (2018) World Spider Catalog, version 19.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (15.07.2018) doi: 10.24436/2

Wunderlich J (1976) Zur Kenntnis der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattung Enoplognatha Pavesi und Robertus O. Pick. Cambridge Senck Biol 57: 97-112

Updates
16-05-2018 Distribution update Old value
15-12-2017 Image insert
24-09-2015 Distribution update Old value
18-12-2014 Image insert
04-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
16-10-2013 Distribution update Old value