Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Parasteatoda  Archer, 1946   4 species

Parasteatoda tepidariorum  (C. L. Koch, 1841)

Description

Entrance ducts forming a heart-shaped figure, longer than wide. Prosoma and sternum ochre yellow or brown, mostly irregularly spotted and with dark margin. Chelicerae ochre-yellow, or brown, mostly irregularly spotted. Legs brown, long and stout, with dark narrow annulations. Opisthosoma spotted light brown and dark brown, sometimes with vague pattern.

Body length male: 3.5-6.5 mm
Body length female: 3.5-7.5 mm
Additional information

On tree trunks and walls, often in buildings.

This species can bite humans. A bite causes moderate to severe, long-lasting pain, but no systemic effects.

This species of South American origin is not native to Europe (alien species). It had been introduced to Europe at least once and did establish.

Frequency: Frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): South America. Introduced to Canada, USA, Europe, Seychelles, China, Japan, New Zealand, Hawaii
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

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Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

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Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Knoflach B (1991) Achaearanea tabulata Levi, eine für Österreich neue Kugelspinne (Arachnida, Aranei: Theridiidae). Ber Nat - Med Ver Innsbruck 78: 59-64

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Lissner J, Jensen J-K, Hansen L J, Simonsen W, Kelduni R, Nissen K (2016b) An updated checklist of spiders (Araneae) of the Faroe Islands. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 63: 197-240 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Locket G H, Millidge A F, Merrett P (1974) British Spiders 3. Ray Soc London

Machač O, Ivinskis P, Rimšaitė J (2016) Several new for the Lithuanian fauna species of spiders (Araneae). Naujos ir retos Lietuvos vabzdžių rūšys 28: 121-126

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Tierwelt Deutschlands 33

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.01.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
16-05-2018 Distribution update Old value
30-12-2017 Distribution update Old value
22-02-2017 Distribution update Old value
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Old value