Eresidae  C. L. Koch, 1845 / Eresus  Walckenaer, 1805   18 species

Eresus sandaliatus  (Martini & Goeze, 1778)

Description
Male

Conductor distally long and pointed, with deep furrow. Prosoma 4 mm long. Legs III and IV entirely black, without red hairs. Opisthosoma with 3 pairs of black spots that are usually not bordered with white hairs.

Body length male: 6-11 mm
Female

Epigyne almost rectangular, anteriorly not divided. Vulva narrow anteriorly. Entrance ducts hardly lobed. Prosoma black and grey, never with yellow hairs. Prosoma 7.9 mm long.

Body length female: 8-20 mm
Additional information

35-80 eggs in cocoon, biology presumably similar to E. cinnaberinus. In dry sandy heathland.

This species can bite humans. A bite into a finger caused pain, spreading to the axilla, with fever-like symptoms and an increased heart rate. After one hour the patient had partially recovered and after 2 hours the symptoms had alleviated, but a strong headache lasted for one day and the finger remained sensitive for several days.

 

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Omitted from the Italian checklist by Pantini & Isaia (2017), records from Italy doubtful. Records from Turkey belong to another, undescribed species (Řezáč et al. 2008: 277).
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Austria   (no references) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| France   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| Sweden   (Kronestedt, 2001) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Kronestedt T (2001) Checklist of Spiders (Araneae) in Sweden [Preliminary version February 2001] pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Ratschker U M, Bellmann H (1995) Zur Bestimmung der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattung Eresus Walckenaer 1805 (Arachnida: Araneae: Eresidae). Beiträge zur Araneologie 4: 217-218 pdf

Řezáč M, Pekár S, Johannesen J (2008a) Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of Central European Eresus species (Araneae: Eresidae). Zoologica Scripta 37: 263-287 pdf

Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion, Baarn, Netherlands, 397 pp. pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
16-09-2020 Gallery image insert
16-10-2018 Distribution update Detail
14-10-2015 Image insert
29-12-2014 Distribution update Detail
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Detail
25-06-2013 Distribution update Detail