Eresidae  C. L. Koch, 1845 / Eresus  Walckenaer, 1805   16 species

Eresus sandaliatus  (Martini & Goeze, 1778)

Description
Male

Conductor distally long and pointed, with deep furrow. Prosoma 4 mm long. Legs III and IV entirely black, without red hairs. Opisthosoma with 3 pairs of black spots that are usually not bordered with white hairs.

Body length male: 6-11 mm
Female

Epigyne almost rectangular, anteriorly not divided. Vulva narrow anteriorly. Entrance ducts hardly lobed. Prosoma black and grey, never with yellow hairs. Prosoma 7.9 mm long.

Body length female: 8-20 mm
Additional information

35-80 eggs in cocoon, biology presumably similar to E. cinnaberinus. In dry sandy heathland.

This species can bite humans. A bite into a finger caused pain, spreading to the axilla, with fever-like symptoms and an increased heart rate. After one hour the patient had partially recovered and after 2 hours the symptoms had alleviated, but a strong headache lasted for one day and the finger remained sensitive for several days.

 

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Omitted from the Italian checklist by Pantini & Isaia (2017), records from Italy doubtful. Records from Turkey belong to another, undescribed species (Řezáč et al. 2008: 277).
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Austria   ( no references ) ||| Belgium   ( no references ) ||| Czechia   ( no references ) ||| Denmark   ( no references ) ||| France   ( no references ) ||| Germany   ( no references ) ||| Greece   ( no references ) ||| Latvia   ( Cera, 2018; ) ||| Netherlands   ( no references ) ||| Sweden   ( no references ) ||| United Kingdom   ( no references ) |||
References

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online Catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other Arachnid Orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Ratschker U M, Bellmann H (1995) Zur Bestimmung der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattung Eresus Walckenaer 1805 (Arachnida: Araneae: Eresidae). Beitr Araneol 4: 217-218

Rezác M, Pekár S, Johannesen J (2008a) Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of central European Eresus species (Araneae: Eresidae). Zoologica Scripta 37: 263-287 pdf

Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion Natuur Baarn, Netherlands

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
16-10-2018 Distribution update Detail
14-10-2015 Image insert
29-12-2014 Distribution update Detail
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Detail
25-06-2013 Distribution update Detail