Eresidae  C. L. Koch, 1845 / Eresus  Walckenaer, 1805   15 species

Eresus sandaliatus  (Martini & Goeze, 1778)

Description
Male

Conductor distally long and pointed, with deep furrow. Prosoma 4 mm long. Legs III and IV entirely black, without red hairs. Opisthosoma with 3 pairs of black spots that are usually not bordered with white hairs.

Body length male: 6-11 mm
Female

Epigyne almost rectangular, anteriorly not divided. Vulva narrow anteriorly. Entrance ducts hardly lobed. Prosoma black and grey, never with yellow hairs. Prosoma 7.9 mm long.

Body length female: 8-20 mm
Additional information

35-80 eggs in cocoon, biology presumably similar to E. cinnaberinus. In dry sandy heathland.

This species can bite humans. A bite into a finger caused pain, spreading to the axilla, with fever-like symptoms and an increased heart rate. After one hour the patient had partially recovered and after 2 hours the symptoms had alleviated, but a strong headache lasted for one day and the finger remained sensitive for several days.

 

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Omitted from the Italian checklist by Pantini & Isaia (2017), records from Italy doubtful. Records from Turkey belong to another, undescribed species (Řezáč et al. 2008: 277).
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Ratschker U M, Bellmann H (1995) Zur Bestimmung der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattung Eresus Walckenaer 1805 (Arachnida: Araneae: Eresidae). Beitr Araneol 4: 217-218

Rezác M, Pekár S, Johannesen J (2008a) Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of central European Eresus species (Araneae: Eresidae). Zoologica Scripta 37: 263-287 pdf

Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion Natuur Baarn, Netherlands

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.01.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
16-10-2018 Distribution update Old value
14-10-2015 Image insert
29-12-2014 Distribution update Old value
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Old value
25-06-2013 Distribution update Old value