Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Paidiscura  Archer, 1950   2 species

Paidiscura pallens  (Blackwall, 1834)

Description
Male

Embolus nearly circularly bent. Prosoma 0.7 mm long. Characters as in female, but cephalic area dark brown, and opisthosoma dorsally dark brown. Epigastric area not bulging.

Body length male: 1.2-1.4 mm
Female

Epigyne very small, marked yellowish brown. Prosoma completely white or yellowish with light grey pattern shining through. Prosoma 0.7 mm long. Sternum yellowish, posteriorly wide, coxae IV more than one diameter apart. Chelicerae: promargin without teeth. Legs light yellowish, tibia IV with one dorsal bristle. Opisthosoma completely white or yellowish with light grey pattern.

Body length female: 1.7-2 mm
Additional information

Mainly in oak forest, pine forest, heathlands, also in cereal fields, dunes, marshes, gardens, hedges, on shrubs and lower branches. Egg sac with pointed projections, whitish, placed under the shelter of a leaf, and guarded by the female.

Frequency: Widely distributed, frequent species

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe, Algeria, Turkey, Georgia, Russia (Europe to South Siberia)
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Females with a peak in May and June, Males with a peak in May, egg sac in June.
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Helsdingen P J van, IJland S (2015) A quick scan of the spider fauna in the surroundings of Përmet, Albania (Arachnida, Araneae) - preliminary report. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 35: 15-33

Jäger P (1995a) Faunistische Untersuchungen an Spinnen (Araneae) der Wahner Heide (Nordrhein-Westfalen) mit Anmerkungen zur Biologie und Taxonomie. Diplomarbeit, Zoologisches Institut, Universität zu Köln

Knoflach B, Thaler K (2000) Notes on Mediterranean Theridiidae (Araneae)-I. Mem Soc Entomol Ital 78 (2): 411-442

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Otto S (2019) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 10.2019. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Staudt A, Weber D, Nährig D (2013) Webspinnen (Arachnida,  Araneae) aus Höhlen des Grossherzogtums Luxemburgs. Ferrantia 69: 115-157

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Tierwelt Deutschlands 33

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.09.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
24-12-2015 Distribution update Old value
21-10-2015 Distribution update Old value
01-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
28-04-2013 Distribution update Old value
15-04-2013 Distribution update Old value