Araneidae  Clerck, 1757 / Gibbaranea  Archer, 1951   6 species

Gibbaranea bituberculata  (Walckenaer, 1802)

Description

Male palp with median apophysis. Prosoma dark brown, brighter medially. Sternum dark brown to black. Legs light brown, with dark annulations. Opisthosoma dark brown anteriorly, brighter posteriorly, coloured very variably (whitish, yellow, light brown to almost black), with laterally directed tubercles.

Body length male: 4.8-5.7 mm
Body length female: 6.2-8.9 mm
Additional information

on herbs and bushes in sunny and warm places, mostly near the ground

Frequency: Locally frequent, more frequent in the south

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Great Britain: see comment by Merrett et al. (2014)
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe, Turkey, Israel, Russia (Europe to Far East), Central Asia to China, Japan, India
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Barrientos J A, Febrer B (2017) Arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España). Nuevos datos. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 31: 8-24 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Demircan N, Topçu A (2016) First records for spider fauna of the European part of Turkey (Araneae). Serket 15: 85-91 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Helsdingen P J van, IJland S (2015) A quick scan of the spider fauna in the surroundings of Përmet, Albania (Arachnida, Araneae) - preliminary report. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 35: 15-33

Kolosváry G (1936) Ein versuch zur Einteilung der Karpathischen Länder mit Berücksichtigung der spinnenfaunistischen Angaben und ein Beitrag zum Rassenkreisproblem bei Spinnen. Folia zool hydrobiol 9: 92-114

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Loksa I (1972) Pokok II-Araneae II. Fauna Hungariae 109: 3.1-3.112

Merrett P, Russell-Smith A, Harvey P (2014) A revised check list of British spiders. Arachnology 16: 134-144 pdf

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Thaler K (1991b) Pachygnatha terilis n.sp. aus den Südalpen, mit Bemerkungen zu einigen Araneidae der Alpenländer (Arachnida: Aranei, Tetragnathidae, Araneidae). Ber Nat - Med Ver Innsbruck 78: 47-57

Wiehle H (1931) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VI. 27: Familie Araneidae. Tierwelt Deutschlands 23

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.01.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
09-01-2019 Image insert
16-05-2018 Distribution update Old value
11-05-2018 Distribution update Old value
20-05-2014 Distribution update Old value
28-04-2014 Distribution update Old value
15-10-2013 Distribution update Old value