Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Parasteatoda  Archer, 1946   4 species

Parasteatoda lunata  (Clerck, 1757)

Description

Conductor slightly twisted around its longitudinal axis. Epigyne with distinct epigynal groove, anterior margin with small tip pointing toward posterior end. Vulva with rectangularly bent entrance duct. Prosoma red-brown, almost black. Sternum and chelicerae red-brown to almost black. Legs red or yellowish, annulated with black. Opisthosoma colourful, rarely completely black. Pattern consisting of black, red, yellow and white elements.

Body length male: 2.7-5 mm
Body length female: 2.7-5.6 mm
Additional information

mostly on trunks or branches

Frequency: Frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe, Turkey, Israel, Caucasus, Russia
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). Nieuwsbr Belg Arachnol Ver 28: 1-147

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Helsdingen P J van (2013) A quick scan of the spider fauna of the European part of Turkey. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 33: 29-38

Knoflach B (1991) Achaearanea tabulata Levi, eine für Österreich neue Kugelspinne (Arachnida, Aranei: Theridiidae). Ber Nat - Med Ver Innsbruck 78: 59-64

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Staudt A, Weber D, Nährig D (2013) Webspinnen (Arachnida,  Araneae) aus Höhlen des Grossherzogtums Luxemburgs. Ferrantia 69: 115-157

Wiehle H (1937) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VIII. 26: Familie Theridiidae oder Haubennetzspinnen (Kugelspinnen). Tierwelt Deutschlands 33

World Spider Catalog (2018) World Spider Catalog, version 19.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (15.07.2018) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
24-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
15-10-2013 Distribution update Old value
28-04-2013 Distribution update Old value
15-04-2013 Distribution update Old value