Oonopidae  Simon, 1890 / Silhouettella  Benoit, 1979   3 species

Silhouettella loricatula  (Roewer, 1942)

Description
Male

Palp: patella and tibia subequal, bulb pear-shaped, embolus as long as lobe, straight, curved at the top. Prosoma 0.7-0.9 mm long. Characters as in female, but tibia I and II with 4 pairs of ventrolateral spines. Body colour carmine-red. Prosoma dorsally shiny, laterally granulated. Sternum granulated with smooth areas near coxae. Legs lighter than body colour. Opisthosoma dorsally shining and smooth, completely covered by large scutum, with few hairs. Ventral scutum smaller than dorsal scutum, with small marked off part anterior of spinnerets.

Body length male: 1.5-2 mm
Female

Epigynal region not sclerotised. Prosoma 0.7-0.9 mm long. Eyes: ocular area as wide as the front of prosoma, median eyes smaller than laterals. Legs: tibia I with 3 pairs of ventrolateral spines, metatarsus I with 2 pairs of ventral spines.

Body length female: 1.5-2 mm
Additional information

In garrigue, under stones and in litter, biology mostly unknown.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Frequency: Very rare

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: See comment by Blick et al. (2016)
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe to Central Asia, North Africa, Canary Is.
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (Naumova, 2020) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2020) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| France   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (Bosmans et al., 2013) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Malta   (Pfliegler et al., 2017) ||| Morocco   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) |||
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Blick T, Finch O-D, Harms K H, Kiechle J, Kielhorn K-H , Kreuels M, Malten A, Martin D, Muster C, Nährig D, Platen R, Rödel I, Scheidler M, Staudt A, Stumpf H, Tolke D (2016) Rote Liste und Gesamtartenliste der Spinnen (Arachnida: Araneae) Deutschlands. 3. Fassung, Stand April 2008, einzelne Änderungen und Nachträge bis August 2015. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt 70/4: 383-510 pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from the Greek island of Crete. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 28 (Suppl. 1): 1-147 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

García J, Suárez D (2019) A spider survey in a protected area of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain) reveals five new records for the island. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 69-76 pdf

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Lecigne S (2018b) Récits de chasses aranéologiques récentes dans plusieurs départements de France. Redécouverte de Philodromus buchari Kubcová, 2004 (Araneae: Philodromidae) et confirmation de la présence de Theridion harmsi Wunderlich, 2011 (Araneae: Theridiidae). Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 33: 59-99 pdf

Naumova M (2020) Descriptions of two new spider species, with new data on the Albanian arachnofauna (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones and Scorpiones). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 72: 3-12 pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pesarini C (unpubl.)

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 42: 1-150 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
15-07-2020 Distribution update Detail
28-03-2020 Distribution insert Detail
22-03-2019 Image insert
20-09-2018 Image insert
02-03-2015 Distribution update Detail
27-11-2014 Distribution update Detail
15-10-2013 Distribution update Detail