Gnaphosidae  Pocock, 1898 / Setaphis  Simon, 1893   9 species

Setaphis carmeli  (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872)

Description
Male

Blackish, relatively delicate spiders with bicolored legs: widened femora to tibiae black, slender metatarsi, and tarsi yellow. Eyes relatively small and closely grouped. Palpus relatively small and slender with nearly straight tibial apophysis. Transparent conductor rises behind embolus coils; low apical projection on tegulum hardly extends to sclerotized gutter-like tegular extension. Prosoma length: 1.8-2.0 mm, prosoma width: 1.4-1.5 mm.

Body length male: 4.1-4.6 mm
Female

Blackish, relatively delicate spiders with bicolored legs: widened femora to tibiae black, slender metatarsi, and tarsi yellow. Eyes relatively small and closely grouped. Epigyne relatively small, median M-like folds bordered anteriorly by fine, blackish sinuous rim with conspicuous lateral caps and by slightly raised hoods on sides. Yellow basal spermathecae extend into apically winding membranous folds. Prosoma length: 1.5-1.7 mm, prosoma width: 1.3-1.4 mm.

Body length female: 3.5-3.7 mm
Additional information

In citrus groves

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2021): Canary Is., Mediterranean, Iran
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Algeria   (Platnick & Murphy, 1996) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Cyprus   (Bosmans et al., 2019c) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Libya   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Morocco   (Platnick & Murphy, 1996) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Tunisia   (Platnick & Murphy, 1996) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (no references) |||
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Chatzaki M, Thaler K, Mylonas M (2003) Ground spiders (Gnaphosidae; Araneae) from Crete and adjacent areas of Greece. Taxonomy and distribution. III. Zelotes and allied genera. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110: 45-89 pdf

Levy G (1998c) The ground-spider genera Setaphis, Trachyzelotes, Zelotes, and Drassyllus (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) in Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology 44: 93-158 pdf

Mestre L, Piñol J, Barrientos J A, Cama A, Espadaler X (2012) Effects of ant competition and bird predation on the spider assemblage of a citrus grove. Basic and Applied Ecology 13: 355-362 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Platnick N I, Murphy J A (1996) A review of the zelotine ground spider genus Setaphis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae). American Museum Novitates 3162: 1-23 pdf

Seyyar O, Ayyildiz N, Topçu A (2008a) Updated checklist of ground spiders (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) of Turkey, with zoogeographical and faunistic remarks. Entomological News 119: 509-520 pdf

Suárez D (2018) New records of spider species from the Canary Islands (Araneae). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 55: 60-63 pdf

WSC (2021) World Spider Catalog. Version 22.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (29.05.2021) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
05-01-2021 Image insert
01-10-2020 Distribution update Detail
13-06-2016 Datasheet update Detail