Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Theridula  Emerton, 1882   3 species

Theridula gonygaster  (Simon, 1873)

Description
Male

Palp: embolus corkscrew-shaped. Prosoma yellow-white, 0.91 mm long. Opisthosoma: pattern as in female or dark unicolored.

Body length male: 1.3-1.7 mm
Female

Epigyne with 2 distinct large openings in a depression. Prosoma unicolored black or with broad black median band and brighter sides, 0.6-0.74 mm long. Legs yellow-white. Opisthosoma black with large white spots, rhomboidal, wider than long, sometimes posteriorly with a median dorsal tubercle.

Body length female: 3-3.5 mm
Additional information

In cereal fields. This species of Central and South American origin is not native to Europe (alien species). It had been introduced to Europe at least once and did establish.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2021): Central and South America, Caribbean. Introduced to Europe, Congo, Madagascar, Seychelles, Georgia, China, Japan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
France   (Lecigne, 2018b) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Switzerland   (Hänggi et al., 2014) |||
References

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Hänggi A, Stäubli A, Heer X, Trivellone V, Pollini Paltrinieri L, Moretti M (2014) Eleven new spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) for Switzerland discovered in vineyards in Ticino - What are possible reasons? Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 87: 215-228 pdf

Kostanjšek R (2010) A contribution to the Slovenian spider fauna – I. Natura Sloveniae 12: 23-33 pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Lecigne S (2018b) Récits de chasses aranéologiques récentes dans plusieurs départements de France. Redécouverte de Philodromus buchari Kubcová, 2004 (Araneae: Philodromidae) et confirmation de la présence de Theridion harmsi Wunderlich, 2011 (Araneae: Theridiidae). Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 33: 59-99 pdf

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Saaristo M I (2006) Theridiid or cobweb spiders of the granitic Seychelles islands (Araneae, Theridiidae). Phelsuma 14: 49-89 pdf

WSC (2021) World Spider Catalog. Version 22.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (29.05.2021) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
16-07-2020 Distribution update Detail
16-07-2020 Distribution insert Detail
20-09-2018 Image insert
04-07-2017 Distribution update Detail
03-02-2017 Image insert
21-03-2015 Datasheet update Detail
05-01-2015 Distribution update Detail
28-04-2014 Image insert