Macrothelidae  Simon, 1892 / Macrothele  Ausserer, 1871   3 species

Macrothele calpeiana  (Walckenaer, 1805)

Description

Bulbus of male palp simple. Embolus long, filiform. Vulva with a pair of long coiled spermathecae. Prosoma dark red-brown in preserved specimens (black in living specimens), with dark striae; fovea a circular pit. Sternum oval, with 6 oval sigilla. Opisthosoma dark grey in preserved specimens (in living specimens purple/violet), dorsally with 3 pairs of impressed dots. Coxa I with highly modified paddle-shaped spines. Distal part of chelicerae covered with long black hairs. 4 Spinnerets, posterior laterals long, three-segmented

Body length male: 20.3-26.8 mm
Body length female: 28.2-34.7 mm
Additional information

In oakwoods, but also common in secondary habitats and anthropogenous habitats such as dumps.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Additionally, it is spread within Europe with potted old olive trees but cannot establish sustainable populations. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Distribution
  Presence
  Not established
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Spain, Italy, North Africa
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini et al., 2016) ||| Morocco   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Switzerland   (no references) |||
References

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Hänggi A, Stäubli A (2012) Nachträge zum „Katalog der schweizerischen Spinnen“: 4. Neunachweise von 2002 bis 2011. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 44: 59-76 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2015b) Binnenwandelende exoten. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 35: 33-34 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M, Mazzoleni F, Oneto C (2016) Nuovi dati sui ragni di Lombardia (Arachnida, Araneae). Rivista del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali "E. Caffi", Bergamo 29: 21-44 pdf

Snazell R, Allison R (1989) The genus Macrothele Ausserer (Araneae, Hexathelidae) in Europe. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 8: 65-72 pdf

Van Keer K (2011) An update on the verified reports of imported spiders (Araneae) from Belgium. Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 25(3, 2010): 210-214 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
01-05-2020 Distribution insert Detail
22-06-2016 Distribution update Detail
22-12-2015 Distribution update Detail
01-10-2015 Distribution update Detail