Lycosidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Trochosa  C. L. Koch, 1847   14 species

Trochosa ruricola  (De Geer, 1778)

Description

Embolus with bent tip. Epigyne with separated chitinised arcs on anterior margin of epigynal groove. Prosoma with bright, yellowish median band and dark lateral bands, 2 dark, longish oval stripes in anterior half of bright median band. Chelicerae male: fang mostly with hump on ventral side. Femur weakly annulated. Metatarsus and tarsus with very short, equally long hairs. Tibia never with white hairs and hairy spots. Opisthosoma olive-brown, cardiac mark light yellow.

Body length male: 7-9.5 mm
Body length female: 8-14 mm
Additional information

in open habitats of middle humidity, active during the night

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China, Japan, Korea. Introduced to North America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Bermuda
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
approximately 2 years old and adult all the year round
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (Deltshev et al., 2011b) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Azerbaijan   (Otto, 2020) ||| Belarus   (Ivanov, 2013) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Estonia   (no references) ||| Finland   (Koponen et al., 2016) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Georgia   (Otto, 2020) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Hungary   (no references) ||| Ireland   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Kosovo   (no references) ||| Latvia   (Cera, 2018) ||| Liechtenstein   (no references) ||| Lithuania   (no references) ||| Luxembourg   (Kreuels et al., 2019) ||| Moldova   (no references) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Northern Ireland   (no references) ||| Norway   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Russia, Central   (no references) ||| Russia, Eastern   (no references) ||| Russia, Kaliningrad Region   (no references) ||| Russia, Northern   (no references) ||| Russia, Southern   (Otto, 2020) ||| Russia, Western   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Sweden   (no references) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (Polchaninova & Prokopenko, 2019) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae).
[N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Cera I (2018) The checklist of Latvian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 139-152 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Deltshev C, Vrenozi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – faunistic and zoogeographical review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 63: 125-144 pdf

Fuhn I E, Niculescu-Burlacu F (1971) Fam. Lycosidae. Fauna Republicii Socialiste România (Arachnida) 5 (3): 1-253 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Ivanov V V (2013) The checklist of Belarusian spiders (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoology and Ecology 4: 293-311 pdf

Koponen S, Fritzén N R, Pajunen T (2016) Checklist of spiders in Finland (Araneae). 6th version, December 2016, online at http://biolcoll.utu.fi/arach/checklist_of_spiders_in_Finland.htm pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kreuels M, Staudt A, Christian S (2019) Die Spinnenfauna von Luxemburg – eine Zusammenstellung der Nachweise aus den Jahren 1906-2018 (Arachnida: Araneae). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 121: 203-230 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British spiders. Vol. I. Ray Society, London, 310 pp. pdf

Loksa I (1972) Pokok II-Araneae II. Fauna Hungariae 109: 1-112 pdf

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Otto S (2020) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 03.2020. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Otto S, Japoshvili G (2018) The spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of the Lagodekhi Reserve, Georgia: faunistic results of a transect study and an updated checklist. Arachnology 17: 375-391 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Polchaninova N, Prokopenko E (2019) An updated checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Left-Bank Ukraine. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 57: 60-64 & App pdf

Roberts M J (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp. pdf

Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion, Baarn, Netherlands, 397 pp. pdf

Thaler K, Noflatscher M-T (1990) Neue und bemerkenswerte Spinnenfunde in Südtirol (Arachnida: Aranei). Veröffentlichungen des Museum Ferdinandeum in Innsbruck 69: 169-190 pdf

Wiebes J T (1959) The Lycosidae and Pisauridae (Araneae) of the Netherlands. Zoologische Verhandelingen 42: 1-78 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Zyuzin A A (1985) Generic and subfamilial criteria in the systematics of the spider family Lycosidae (Aranei), with the description of a new genus and two new subfamilies. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, Leningrad 139: 40-51 pdf

Updates
29-10-2019 Image insert
24-07-2018 Image insert
27-12-2016 Image insert
14-01-2014 Image insert
04-12-2013 Distribution update Detail
16-10-2013 Distribution update Detail
15-04-2013 Distribution update Detail