Pholcidae  C. L. Koch, 1850 / Holocnemus  Simon, 1875   4 species

Holocnemus pluchei  (Scopoli, 1763)

Beschreibung
Männchen

Prosoma weisslich, oft mit dunklem Längsband. Sternum schwarz. Cheliceren mit lateralen Stridulationsleisten. Beine: Femur I prolateral mit einer Serie von 30-36 Stacheln. Femur mit dunklen Flecken, Femur I und Tibia I ventral mit zahlreichen, kurzen Stacheln. Opisthosoma weisslich, dorsal mit undeutlichen Flecken, ventral mit schwarzem Längsband.

Körperlänge Männchen: 5-7 mm
Weibchen

Pedipalpus hell bräunlich, Tarsus dunkler, Tibia und Tarsus erweitert. Färbung weisslich, Prosoma oft mit dunklem Band, Sternum schwarz, mit einem kräftigen Tuberkel zwischen Coxen IV. Augen: VMA weniger als einen Durchmesser voneinander entfernt. Opisthosoma dorsal mit einem medianen rot-braunen Band, ventral mit einem breiten, dunklen Längsband. Opisthosoma oval, ohne Fortsatz.

Körperlänge Weibchen: 5-7.5 mm
Zusätzliche Informationen

Unter Steinblöcken, in trockenem Gelände, in Höhlen und Kellern, grosse Netze mit unregelmässigen Maschen.

Seit einigen Jahrzehnten zeigt diese Art Ausbreitungstendenzen innerhalb von Europa. Trotzdem sollte man sie nicht als nicht-einheimisch oder invasiv bezeichnen, da sie einheimisch für Europa ist.

Troglophile Art (Mammola et al. 2018)

Verbreitung
  Vorkommen
  kein Nachweis
Verbreitung Kommentar: Ukraine: A. Nadolny (pers. comm.)
Weltweite Verbreitung (WSC 2020): Europe, northern Africa
Phänologie
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Abbildungen
Verbreitungsnachweise
Albania   (no references) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Andorra   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Cyprus   (Bosmans et al., 2019c) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Egypt   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (no references) ||| Hungary   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Libya   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Malta   (Pfliegler et al., 2017) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (no references) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
Literatur

Barrientos J A, Febrer B (2017) Arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España). Nuevos datos. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 31: 8-24 pdf

Benhadi-Marín J, Barrientos J A , Ferrández M A, Henriques S, Morano E (2013) Second annotated list of selected spider families (Arachnida: Araneae) held at the University of León (Spain). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 22: 71-78 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Gajić I, Grbić G (2016) Further notes on spiders from the Special Nature Reserve Zasavica (Serbia). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 51: 49-56 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010c) Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763 in Nederland (Araneae, Phiolcidae). Nieuwsbrief SPINED 29: 27 pdf

Huber B A (1995) Copulatory mechanism in Holocnemus pluchei and Pholcus opilionoides, with notes on male cheliceral apophyses and stridulatory organs in Pholcidae (Araneae). Acta Zoologica, Stockholm 76: 291-300 pdf

Jäger P (2000a) Selten nachgewiesene Spinnenarten aus Deutschland (Arachnida: Araneae). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 19: 49-57 pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kovács G, Szinetár C, Eichardt J (2006) Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763) (Araneae: Pholcidae) in Hungary. Állattani Közlemények 91: 9-18 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Lissner J, Scharff N (2019) Danish Spiders. Online at http://www.danmarks-edderkopper.dk pdf

Mammola S, Cardoso P, Ribera C, Pavlek M, Isaia M (2018b) A synthesis on cave-dwelling spiders in Europe. Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 56: 301-316 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pesarini C (unpubl.)

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Rozwałka R, Rutkowski T, Bielak-Bielecki P (2017a) New data on introduced and rare synanthropic spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) in Poland (II). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin-Polonia 71: 59-85 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
12-10-2020 Gallery image insert
30-12-2017 Distribution update Detail
04-04-2017 Distribution update Detail
24-01-2017 Distribution update Detail
01-10-2015 Distribution update Detail
05-03-2015 Image insert
15-07-2014 Distribution update Detail
24-12-2013 Distribution update Detail