Pholcidae  C. L. Koch, 1850 / Holocnemus  Simon, 1875   4 species

Holocnemus pluchei  (Scopoli, 1763)

Description
Male

Prosoma whitish, often with dark longitudinal band. Sternum black. Chelicerae with lateral stridulatory ridges. Legs: femur I with a prolateral series of 30 to 36 spines. Femur with dark spots, femur I and tibia I ventrally with numerous, short spines. Opisthosoma whitish, dorsally with vague spots, ventrally with black longitudinal band..

Body length male: 5-7 mm
Female

Palp light brownish, tarsus darker, tibia and tarsus widened. Colouration whitish, prosoma often with dark band, sternum black, with a strong tubercle between coxae IV. Eyes: AME less than one diameter apart. Opisthosoma dorsally with a median red-brown band, ventrally with a wide longitudinal dark band. Opisthosoma oval, without extension behind.

Body length female: 5-7.5 mm
Additional information

Under rocks, in warm terrain, in caves and basements, large webs with irregular meshes.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Troglophile species (Mammola et al. 2018)

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Ukraine: A. Nadolny (pers. comm.)
Global distribution (WSC 2020): Europe, northern Africa
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
Distribution List
Albania   (no references) ||| Algeria   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Andorra   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Austria   (no references) ||| Belgium   (no references) ||| Bulgaria   (Blagoev et al., 2018) ||| Croatia   (no references) ||| Cyprus   (Bosmans et al., 2019c) ||| Czechia   (no references) ||| Denmark   (no references) ||| Egypt   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| France   (no references) ||| France / Corsica   (no references) ||| Germany   (no references) ||| Greece   (no references) ||| Greece / Crete   (no references) ||| Hungary   (no references) ||| Italy   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sardinia   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Italy / Sicily   (Pantini & Isaia, 2019) ||| Libya   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Malta   (Pfliegler et al., 2017) ||| Montenegro   (no references) ||| Netherlands   (no references) ||| North Macedonia   (no references) ||| Poland   (no references) ||| Portugal   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Romania   (no references) ||| Serbia   (no references) ||| Slovakia   (no references) ||| Slovenia   (Kostanjšek & Kuntner, 2015) ||| Spain   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Spain / Balearic Islands   (Branco et al., 2019) ||| Switzerland   (no references) ||| Tunisia   (Bosmans, unpubl.) ||| Turkey (Asia)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Turkey (Europe)   (Danışman et al., 2019) ||| Ukraine   (no references) ||| United Kingdom   (no references) |||
References

Barrientos J A, Febrer B (2017) Arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España). Nuevos datos. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 31: 8-24 pdf

Benhadi-Marín J, Barrientos J A , Ferrández M A, Henriques S, Morano E (2013) Second annotated list of selected spider families (Arachnida: Araneae) held at the University of León (Spain). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 22: 71-78 pdf

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018) pdf

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Hadjiconstantis M, Komnenov M, Bosselaers J, Huber S, McCowan D, Snazell R, Decae A, Zoumides C, Kielhorn K-H, Oger P (2019c) Spiders of Cyprus (Araneae). A catalogue of all currently known species from Cyprus. Newsletter of the Belgian Arachnological Society 34, Suppl. 1: 1-173 pdf

Bosmans R. (unpubl.) Provisional list of spiders of North Africa. Database excerpt Aug. 2019

Branco V V, Morano E, Cardoso P (2019) An update to the Iberian spider checklist (Araneae). [N.B.: few records from this paper are not taken over and not commented] Zootaxa 4614: 201-254 pdf

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2019 [last updated 1 June 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info pdf

Gajić I, Grbić G (2016) Further notes on spiders from the Special Nature Reserve Zasavica (Serbia). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 51: 49-56 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010c) Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763 in Nederland (Araneae, Phiolcidae). Nieuwsbrief SPINED 29: 27 pdf

Huber B A (1995) Copulatory mechanism in Holocnemus pluchei and Pholcus opilionoides, with notes on male cheliceral apophyses and stridulatory organs in Pholcidae (Araneae). Acta Zoologica, Stockholm 76: 291-300 pdf

Jäger P (2000a) Selten nachgewiesene Spinnenarten aus Deutschland (Arachnida: Araneae). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 19: 49-57 pdf

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kovács G, Szinetár C, Eichardt J (2006) Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763) (Araneae: Pholcidae) in Hungary. Állattani Közlemények 91: 9-18 pdf

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Lissner J, Scharff N (2019) Danish Spiders. Online at http://www.danmarks-edderkopper.dk pdf

Mammola S, Cardoso P, Ribera C, Pavlek M, Isaia M (2018b) A synthesis on cave-dwelling spiders in Europe. Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 56: 301-316 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2019) Araneae.it: the online catalog of Italian spiders, with addenda on other arachnid orders occurring in Italy (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpionida, Scorpiones, Solifugae). http://araneae.it. Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 127-152 pdf

Pesarini C (unpubl.)

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Rozwałka R, Rutkowski T, Bielak-Bielecki P (2017a) New data on introduced and rare synanthropic spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) in Poland (II). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin-Polonia 71: 59-85 pdf

World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.03.2020) doi: 10.24436/2 pdf

Updates
12-10-2020 Gallery image insert
30-12-2017 Distribution update Detail
04-04-2017 Distribution update Detail
24-01-2017 Distribution update Detail
01-10-2015 Distribution update Detail
05-03-2015 Image insert
15-07-2014 Distribution update Detail
24-12-2013 Distribution update Detail