Pholcidae  C. L. Koch, 1850 / Holocnemus  Simon, 1875   3 species

Holocnemus pluchei  (Scopoli, 1763)

Description
Male

Prosoma whitish, often with dark longitudinal band. Sternum black. Chelicerae with lateral stridulatory ridges. Legs: femur I with a prolateral series of 30 to 36 spines. Femur with dark spots, femur I and tibia I ventrally with numerous, short spines. Opisthosoma whitish, dorsally with vague spots, ventrally with black longitudinal band..

Body length male: 5-7 mm
Female

Palp light brownish, tarsus darker, tibia and tarsus widened. Colouration whitish, prosoma often with dark band, sternum black, with a strong tubercle between coxae IV. Eyes: AME less than one diameter apart. Opisthosoma dorsally with a median red-brown band, ventrally with a wide longitudinal dark band. Opisthosoma oval, without extension behind.

Body length female: 5-7.5 mm
Additional information

Under rocks, in warm terrain, in caves and basements, large webs with irregular meshes.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Troglophile species (Mammola et al. 2018)

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Ukraine: A. Nadolny (pers. comm.)
Global distribution (WSC 2019): Europe, northern Africa
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Barrientos J A, Febrer B (2017) Arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España). Nuevos datos. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 31: 8-24 pdf

Benhadi-Marín J, Barrientos J A , Ferrández M A, Henriques S, Morano E (2013) Second annotated list of selected spider families (Arachnida: Araneae) held at the University of León (Spain). Revta Ibérica Aracnol 22: 71-78

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2018) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: August 2018. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 10.9.2018)

Danışman T, Kunt K B, Özkütük R S (2019) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2018 [last updated 1 January 2019], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Gajić I, Grbić G (2016) Further notes on spiders from the Special Nature Reserve Zasavica (Serbia). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 51: 49-56 pdf

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Huber B A (1995) Copulatory mechanism in Holocnemus pluchei and Pholcus opilionoides, with notes on male cheliceral apophyses and stridulatory organs in Pholcidae (Araneae). Acta Zool Stockholm 76: 291-300

Jäger P (2000) Selten nachgewiesene Spinnenarten aus Deutschland (Arachnida: Araneae). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 19: 49-57

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kovács G, Szinetár C, Eichardt J (2006) Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763) (Araneae: Pholcidae) in Hungary. Állattani Közlemények 91: 9-18

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522 pdf

Lissner J, Scharff N (2017) Danish Spiders. Online at http://www.danmarks-edderkopper.dk

Mammola S, Cardoso P, Ribera C, Pavlek M, Isaia M (2018b) A synthesis on cave-dwelling spiders in Europe. Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 56: 301-316 pdf

Pantini P, Isaia M (2018) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version June 2018). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94 pdf

Pesarini C (unpubl.)

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Rozwałka R, Rutkowski T, Bielak-Bielecki P (2017a) New data on introduced and rare synanthropic spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) in Poland (II). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin-Polonia 71: 59-85 pdf

van Helsingen P J (2010c) Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763 in Nederland (Araneae, Phiolcidae). Nieuwsbrief SPINED 29: 27

World Spider Catalog (2019) World Spider Catalog, version 20.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch (20.01.2019) doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
30-12-2017 Distribution update Old value
04-04-2017 Distribution update Old value
24-01-2017 Distribution update Old value
01-10-2015 Distribution update Old value
05-03-2015 Image insert
15-07-2014 Distribution update Old value
24-12-2013 Distribution update Old value